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tuyển tập 20 năm đề thi olympic 30 tháng 4 tiếng anh 11: phần 2

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tuyển tập 20 năm đề thi olympic 30 tháng 4 tiếng anh 11: phần 2

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  1. PRACTICE 7 PART ONE: PHONOLOGY A. Pick out tlie word whose bold part is pronounced differently from those of the others. 1. A. fierce B. weird C. tearing D. weary 2. A. resettle B. resell C. orange D. resound 3. A. subtlety B. indebtedness C. bombard D. combing 4. A. rehabilitation B. inheritance C. dishonorable D. heiress 5. A. quick B. quay C. keep D. queue 6. A. macabre B. machismo C. chemical D. chivalrous 7. A. combustion B. cheaper C. education D. congestion 8. A. breakfast B. many C. carry D. any 9. A. months B. paths C. wreaths D. youths 10. A. breathe B. with C.southern D.thorough B. List the words given in separate columns according to their stre patterns. collaborate cinematographer influences parUamentary syndicalism perpendicular arithmetic inventories physician wholesaler personify hepatitis etiquette palaeolithic merchandise incontrovertible memorabilia numerical auctioneer reliability PART TWO: VOCABULARY A. Use the correct form of the word given in parentheses to fill in the blank in each.sentence. 1. Those who oppose the legalization of drugs feel that (crime) drugs would be a surrender in a drug war. 2. The two nations finally agreed to sign a(n) (aggressive) pact to normalize their diplomatic relations. 3. Too much use of (insect) can do harm to the health of people. 4. We can stop by that Chinese (take) and get some food for the children. 5. The printed instructions are quite (explain); there's no need for me to further explain anything. 184
  2. 6. It's just too late; the problem is now (remedy). 7. Those corrupted officials tried to estabUsh a (coverage) for their shameful transaction with the Mafia. 8. The accused said he had made the confession under (coerce). 9. The (privacy) of the national airUne has shown the government's flexibility in its economic policy. 10. Three pilots were (supposition) on the plane when it crashed. B. Choose the best word that fits each blank from A, B, C, or D. 1. In spite of being a very good student, she didn't fulfill her later in life. A. makings B. potential C. capability D. aptitude 2. You can't that criticism to the local authority. A. apply B. employ C. associate D. lay 3. From my viewpoint, the changes to the education system have been to good . A. influence B. outcome C. upshot D. effect 4. Without qualifications, there will be no of firms wiUing to employ you. A. want B. inadequacy C. deficiency D. shortage 5. Having planned our weekends to watch football, we found the news of the home team's players' strike most . A. disconcerting B. refreshing C. activating D. debihtating 6. The audience his appearance on stage with thunderous applause. A. clapped B. protested C. rewarded D. hailed 7. Assembly-hne has made cars and motorbikes wonderfully cheap. A. process B. system C. production D. creation 8. Some people's body clocks poorer time than others. A. keep B hold C. support D. preserve 9. His library book is so he will have to pay a small fine. A. expected B. expired C. overdue D. postponed 10. Consumers are warned not to buy items which look like they may have been with. A. used B. tampered C. bothered D. damaged 185
  3. C. Fill in each blank with an appropriate preposition or particle to make meaningful sentences. 1. His fame is now the wane. 2. Those students sitting the back row of the class are very noisy. 3. Malcolm can't join us; he has gone the flu. 4. Your suspicions are quite foundation. 5. Work piled when I was away on holiday. 6. retrospect, the experience has been useful. 7. He has a mania collecting strange objects. 8. Doris dotes her new baby. 9. Students are often nervous their teachers. 10. Please, bear me. I ' m tcUing you the truth. 11. I've been your essay, and I wore out three red pens making corrections. 12. The robber suddenly came her with a knife. 13. You're not my boss; you can't dictate me. 14. Is it possible to insure yourself air pollution? 15. Our boss is trouble; please gather him now. 16.1 think he's not serious becoming a teacher. He just plays the idea. 17.I'm sorry to say I can't read much this. PART T H R E E : GRAMMAR AND STRUCTURES A. Complete the sentences in such a way that each of the sentences means almost the same as the sentence printed before it. 1. Working independently is sometimes a great advantage, I reckon. I thjnk it . 2. Tom said to me, "Congratulations! I heard of your success in the driving test." Tom congratulated . 3. To get the best result, you should work as hard as you can. You should work the . 4. It was surprising the storm caused little damage in the area. The storm . 5. You won't find a school anywhere whose students get such good results. Nowhere the students get such good marks. 186
  4. 6. Let's watch TV anyway. There's nothing better to do this evening. We might . 7. She was so attractive that every boy in the class ran after her. Such . 8. Despite the lack of their financial support, wewill haveto carry out the project. Whether ^ , . 9. It is now time you were working with your homework. You are supposed . 10. Just keep the book i f you still need it. As • B. Rewrite the following sentences using the given words. Do not alter these words. 1. I haven't got a screwdriver, but I think this knife will do. (TURN) 2. Your empty promises won't have any effect on her. (ICE) 3. The boy does whatever his father wants in an obedient way. (ATTENDANCE) 4. The book was very dull. (DUST) 5. They have arranged to see the director tomorrow morning. (ARRANGEMENTS) 6. I really regret to have lost the opportunity to get the promotion. (BOAT) 7. He was finally able to adjust himself to the new working condition. (SWING) 8. His grandfather is now having an operation. (KNIFE) 9. His action was incomprehensible to his parents. (LOSS) 187
  5. C . Put the verbs given in parentheses into their appropriate tense or form. 1. It's high time the local government (do) something about the sewage system which (not, upgrade) for years. 2. It is advisable that we (be) economical in the economic recession. 3. The telephone, which is considered _ _ _ _ _ _ (be) one of the most useful scientific achievements of the century, is said (invent) by A. Bell. 4. They didn't come. They (not, be) absent. They were supposed (sit) for an important test during the afternoon. 5. The population (increase) rapidly is Vietnam nowadays. 6. I ' l l phone you at eight. - No, 1 (watch) a football match then. 7. They (play) football for half an hour when it suddenly began to rain. 8. By the time we get there now, I ' m afraid the meeting (end). 9. His doctor advises that he (eat) less meat. 10. You'd better (work) on the project now. It's no use (discuss) whether it is worth (do). 11. We have postponed (tell) anyone the news until someone considers (do) something about our matter. 12. He happened (stand) outside the bank, and he witnessed the robbery (take) place. 13.If you are to catch the first train, it will mean (get) up at 5.00. P A R T FOUR: READING COMPREHENSION A. Fill each numbered blank with one single suitable word. Today's career women (1) all bossy, tough little executives (2)__ shoulder pads and powder dressing. Not all of them (3) 15 different languages, or profess total (4) in computer-speak. In (5) , the only language self-made successes in the fashion (6) need other than their (7) native tongue is body talk (8) they have in spades; oh yes, and there is always the (9) of the eyes. These are the supermodels of thel990s, the "drop dead" girl; so stunning (10) make other women want to (11) dead in sheer frustration. There they go winging their (12) from one exotic destination to another, to be be-decked, be-frocked and photographed for the 188
  6. glossiest (13) only to take , (14) the next day to serve another designer, (15) photographer and an enchanted (16) who are now becoming as familiar with Linda and Christy and Cindy and Naomi (17) they were with Madonna or Meryl or Julia Roberts. Unfortunately, Meryl and Julia and others (18). them insisted upon being photographed in baggy trousers and giving worthy (19) about how they only cared about their art and (20) to be like ordinary people. B. The sentences in the following passage are in their wrong order. Put them back in the correct order by numbering them according to their appearance in the passage. The first one is done for you. A. As well as raining all day, the weather was also cold. At night, people in some Melbourne suburbs were switching on their heating as though it was winter. B. So even i f the summer is cold and wet, people in Melbourne can still look forward to the possibility of a warm sunny autumn. C. The best weather in Melbourne, however, is not usually in the summer: it is in the autumn. The autumn usually has more pleasant days than the summer. D. Let me give you an example. At the beginning of 1992, Melbourne had its wettest January for over 100 years. It rained for nine days in a row. E. Melbourne people enjoy telling this joke to visitors: i f you don't like the weather in Melbourne, don't worry, just wait five minutes, because it's sure to change. F. The scenery at this time of year is beautiful, too. Melbourne has many lovely garden and parklands with many beautiful trees. G. 1 The city of Melboume, Australia has always had a reputation for unusual weather. H. It was so cold many people could hardly beUeve that it was summer at all. I. In the autumn, the trees change their colour to red, gold and brown. J. The weather in autumn usually consists of warm days and cool, comfortable nights. K. As they are blown in the air by the wind of a late autumn day, the leaves add life to the city. 189
  7. P A R T F I V E : MISTAKE CORRECTION There are ten mistakes in the following paragraph. Correct them. The first one is done for you. More and more women are now joining the pay labour force worldly. They represent the workforce in all the sectors which are expanding as the result of globalization and trade liberalization the informal sector, included subcontracting; export processing or free trade zones; home working; and the "flexible", part-time, temporary, lowly-paid labour force. Women's high participation in informal employment is partially due to the fact that many jobs in the formal economy are not opening to them: they are actively excluded of certain kinds of works or lack access to education and training or have domestic commitments. The increase of women's participation on the informal sector has been most marked in the countries like Sub-Saharan Africa which sharply economic decline and structural adjustment policies have reduced the official job market drastically. l.is^are 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. ^ 9. -> 10. -> PRACTICE 8 P A R T ONE: PHONOLOGY A. Pick out the word whose bold part is pronounced differently from those of the others. 1. A. dressed B. laughed C. ploughed D. stopped 2. A. potatoes B. dynamos C. wives D. scarfs 3. A. delicate B. concentrate C. private D. accurate 4. A. lakes B. states C. raises D. stops 5. A. gravity B. comfortable C. principal D. criminal 6. A. character B. challenger C. creature D. chemistry 7. A. myth B. bathe C. bath D. breathless 8. A. child B. which C. school D. catch 9. A. promise B. device C. precise D. lice 10. A. good B.roof C. foot D. flood 190
  8. B. Underline the stressed syllables of the following words. tranquilize ordinarily industry themselves superstructure speciality geneticist supernatural recipe electrician PART TWO: VOCABULARY A. Supply the correct word form. 1. His family suffered from his . (EXPEND) 2. We like foods. (IMAGINE) 3. He refused our suggestions. (DECIDE) 4. The soil has been by erosion. (POVERTY) 5. It's good for you to Usten to the explanation . (ATTENTION) 6. Most of the area has been . (ELECTRIC) 7. What a building! (TASTE) 8. He feels sad about the result. (SATISFY) 9. The boy asked for permission. (REPEAT) 10. Your helpful advice is . (VALUE) B. Choose the best answer to complete the following sentences. L i t is a long from Tokyo to London. A. tour B. track C. flight D. travel 2. You're your time, trying to persuade him, he'll never help you. A. wasting B. spending C. losing D. missing 3. He was to steal the money when he saw it lying on the table. A. attracted B. dragged C. tempted D. brought 4. The of blood always makes him feel sick. A. news B. scene C. form D. sight 5. You must be careful when you wash this silk. A. wreak B. sensitive C. deUcate D. feeble 6. The postman was down the street by the dog. A. hunted B. chased C. run D. sped 7. His performance was ; the audience was delighted. A. unmarked B. faultless C. worthless D. imperfect 8. I'd like to offer a small to anyone who finds my missing dog. A. receipt B. repayment C. expense D. reward 9. The blue curtains began to after they had been hanging in the sun for two months. A. fade B. die C. dissolve D. melt 191
  9. 10. The wind blew so strongly that the windows in their frames. A. rattled B. slapped C. flapped D. shocked P A R T T H R E E : GRAMMAR AND STRUCTURES A. Supply the correct Verb tenses and forms. 1. He got angry because he (not accustomed, make) fun like that before. 2. The price of gold (say, go up) now. 3. You (remember, lock) . the door before leaving? 4. A number of students (please, give) the rewards by the headmaster last week. 5. (Not, hesitate, ask) me for help when necessary. 6. She wasn't in. She (must, go out) with her family. 7. Please lend me this book. I (return) it to you as soon as I (finish, read) it. 8. Most films (make, show) in theatres. 9. Now 1 (regret, tell) him the truth. 10. I (try) in vain (contact) him several times so far. B. Fill in each blank with one preposition. 1. I agree him the viewpoint. 2. They appeal the court the unfair judgement. 3. She competes other two contestants the prize. 4. He looks his father appearance. 5. Luck combination hard work made him succeed. 6. I ' d Uke to thank the speaker behalf all the attenders. 7. He gave me some money payment all my services. 8. I ' m grateful you your help. 9. They are keen working the company. 10. Parents must be responsible their kids their actions. C . Supply the phrasal verbs with their correct tenses. 1. The wind (just blow) the candle. 2. The house (break) by burglars last night. 3. The fire (burn) he house before the fire brigade came. 4. He (call) me on his way home tomorrow. 5. She (bring) by her uncle since her parents' death. 192
  10. 6. Yesterday's flight (call) due to the storm. 7. I (come) these old photographs when I was looking for my pen. 8. The car (draw) and the driver got out. 9. I often (turn) late every night. 10. He often (go) his promises. D. Complete each sentence by using the cues given, 1. Thank / you/ lot/ willing/ lend/ me/moncy. 2. 1/ need/ it/ buy/ book/ necessary/ exam. 3. Parents/ promise/ send/1/ not/ receive/ yet. 4. Hope/ receive/ sooner/ later. 5. 1/ back/ you/ as soon as/ receive/ money. E. Rewrite the sentence without changing its meaning, beginning with the given word. 1. You didn't attend yesterday's class so you can't do this exercise now. Had_ . 2. He had just left then the postman arrived. Hardly . 3. It will be necessary for him to try harder i f he wants to win the prize. He . 4. You brought the umbrella along but it didn't rain. You needn 't . 5. He regrets having invited her to the party. He wishes . F. Paraphrase the sentence, using the exact word given. 1. There's no one here who would not like to be in your place. (BUT) 2. I ' m telling you this so that you do not make a mistake. (FEAR) 3. You arc broke. So am I . (BOAT) 4. He is often busy all day long. (GO) 5. We used to quarrel but we are friendly now. (TERMS) 193
  11. J, 6. His exercise is certainly not so difficult as it appears. (MEANS) 7. They fell in love when they first saw each other. (SIGHT) 8. What you say is, understood in one way, true but I should express it differently. (SENSE) 9. We continued waving until the train could not be seen any more. (SIGHT) 10.We haven't heard from him for ages. (TOUCH) P A R T FOUR: READING COMPREHENSION A. Fill in each numbered gap with one word. About twenty per cent of the world's present energy already comes from the sun in one form or another. Special devices have been (1) available to place on the (2) of houses or flats to catch the sun's rays and thus heat water. Thousands of these (3) are now being used to provide (4) in homes throughout the United States while more than a miUion solar water-heating units have akeady been (5) in homes in Japan. Other purposes for which energy is at present (6) used include the extraction of salt (7) seawater, irrigation and sewage disposal. (8) most people in developing countries, the need is (9) for air condition or central heating but for cheap (10) of cooking food, drying crops and lighting home. B. Read the following passage then choose the correct answer to each question. In an effort to attract more passengers, airlines are now providing frequent travellers with services that rival those of first-rate restaurants and hotels. The routine privileges most companies offer first-class and business clientele include express check-in, free drinks and headsets and more refined menus. In addition, a growing number of airlines have amenities such as fully reclining sleeper seats and furnish eye-shades and sleeper socks. At some international airports, companies have established membership lounges that allow business 194
  12. travellers the use of facsimile machines, personal computers, and private conference rooms. A few have even gone so far as to install video systems on the arm rests of seats and to serve meals upon request rather on fixed schedule. All of these services come at a price, however, that is reflected in ticket prices substantially above those regular coach classes. 1. What is the best title for the passage? A. Frequent Travellers B. Special Airlines Services C. First Class Accommodation D. The Airline Business 2. According to the passage, added airline privileges serve to A. compensate for a reduction in routes. B. improve coach class service. C. bolster employee morale. D. attract new clientele. 3. The word "amenities" most closely means _. A. comforts B. accommodations C. refreshments D. incentives 4. Which of the following services is not mentioned in the passage? A. Meals when requested B. Free headsets C. Video Systems D. Pubhc restrooms 5. According to the passage, business lounges are available . A. at most airport B. to members only C. during limited hours D. at a nominal charge C. Put the sentences in the right order to form a meaningful passage. A. Since then I have written to you twice, and have tried to phone on several occasions, but I have had no reply. B. Naturally I took them back to the shop. C. They cost £35.00, which I do not think is cheap. D. This organization often prosecutes shops that sell faulty goods. E. However after only three weeks, I had to have them re-heeled. F. I bought a pair of shoes from your Oxford Street branch on 17' September last. G. I f I do not hear from you in two weeks, I will get in touch with the Consumer Advice Bureau. H. I said that I did not want to choose another style, and that I wanted my money back. 195
  13. I . For a pair of shoes at this price, one would expect them to last several years. J. There I have told that I could have another pair of shoes, but that particular style was out of stock. K. Not only that, but they began to leak in rainy weather. L. The shop assistant informed me that she could not do this, and that if I wanted a refund I had to write to your office. PRACTICE 9 PART ONE: PHONOLOGY A, Pick out the word whose bold part is pronounced differently from those of the others. 1. A. suitable B. biscuit C. guilty D. building 2. A. patient B. crescent C. ancient D. machine 3. A. physical B. mythology C. rhythmic D. psychological 4. A. nature B. change C. gravity D. basis 5. A. discipline B. vision C. cylinder D. muscle B. Pick out the word that is stressed differently from the others in the list. 1. A. marketing B. ambitious C. fashionable D. immigrant 2. A. cucumber B. powerful C. strawberry D. appointment 3. A. promise B. survive C. succeed D. forgive 4. A. success B. message C. platform D. lipstick 5. A. relationship B. evaluate C. convenient D. favourable PART TWO: GRAMMAR & STRUCTURES A. Fill the blanks in these sentences with the correct form of the verbs in parentheses. 1. His doctor is trying to get him (admit) to a special hospital where he'll probably be looked after. 2. "Could someone help me lift the lawn-mower into the pick up truck?" "I'm not busy. I (help) you." 3. It is said that Dang Thai Son (play) the piano for ten hours a day when he was a child. 4. There are just five awards, each (consist) of 50,000 Swiss Francs. 196
  14. 5. We'll be in the same firm but we (not/work) together because we'll be in different departments. 6. They (complete) the new bridge by the end of the year. 7. Have you finished that book vet? You (read) it for more than a week. 8. After his accident last week, Jeff promised he (drive) more carefully. 9. "I'll hand the book over when I (read) it," he said. lO.If you want to know the results of the election, I suggest you (Usten) to the radio news. B. Fill in each blank with the correct form of the word in the parentheses. 1. "Leonard has been very these past few days. I wonder what he is trying to hide from us," Devi said, (secret) 2. "Remember to the water from the stream before you drink it," Kumar said, (pure) 3. As Mr. Schweitzer was not feeling well, his colleague him of his duties, (rehef) 4. Lisa is very . She always manages to look good in photographs. (photo) 5. After listening to his sad story, the old woman shook her head . (sympathy) 6. The king sent a huge army to curb the in the south, (rebel) 7. The old man collapsed after doing some exercises, (strain) 8. The vet sent us a note to remind us to our dog against rabies. (vaccine) 9. My grandmother cannot recognize me sometimes. She is probably affected by . (senile) 10. My brother and I are readers of mystery stories, (voracity) C. Replace the words underlined in each sentence with a phrasal verb from the list. break down ffo off keep up with pick up run out do without han^ up look out put off stand for 1. My car isn't as fast as yours. I won't be able to stay near you. 197 2. The torch doesn't work. The batteries must have been used up.
  15. 3. This radio doesn't receive the BBC World service very well. 4. The car is making a funny noise. I think it's going to stop working. 5. I was going to buy a motorbike, but I was discouraged by my parents. 6. People call me on the phone, but then put down the receiver. 7. Be careful! You're going to give yourself an electric shock! 8. It's difficult to manage i f you don't have a washing machine. 9. The letters CD mean compact disc, actually. 10. Without a fridge, fresh food will become bad very quickly. D. Supply the missing prepositions after the adjectives. 1. I hear you're very keen football. 2. We're all very obUged you. 3. I think he's capable anything. 4. This service is free charge. 5. Why is he so jealous his sister? 6. John's very good his hands. 7. He's quite careless danger. 8. They went ahead contrary my advice. 9. We're quite safe danger here. 10. We were wrong the election results. E . Rewrite the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence using the word in bold and other words. 1. It took her a long time to recover from her illness. (OVER) 2. I regret saying that to him. (WISH) 3. I'm^sure that wasn't Tony we saw. He's in London. (CAN'T) 4. It is important that I post this letter tonight. (NEED) 5. I ' m sure the children have been doing something terrible while we've been out. (UP) 6. The mechanic checked the tyres on my car. (HAD) 198
  16. 7. I think you should go to bed now. (TIME) 8. It was difficult for me to read the number plate in the fog. (MAKE) 9. Please don't tell Andrew about our conversation. (RATHER) lO.Unless you start studying now, it's possible that you will fail the exam. (COULD) PART T H R E E : READING COMPREHENSION A. Read the article below and circle the letter next to the word which best fits each space. Broadcasting has democratized the publication of language, often at its most informal, even undressed. Now the cars of the educated cannot escape the language of the masses. It (1) them on the news, weather, sports, commercials, and the ever-prohferating game shows. This wider dissemination of popular speech may easily give purists the (2) that language is suddenly going to hell in this generation, and may (3) the new paranoia about it. It might also be argued that more Armericans hear more correct, even beautiful, English on television than ever before. Through television more models of good usage (4) more American homes than was ever possible in other times. Television gives them lots of (5) Enghsh too, some awful, some creative, but that is not new. Hidden in this is a (6) fact: our language is not the special private property of the language police, or grammarians, or teachers, or even great writers. The (7) of English is that it has always been the tongue of the common people, literate or not. English belongs to everybody: the funny (8) of phrase that pops into the mind of a farmer telling a story; or the (9) salesman's dirty joke; or the teenager saying, "Gag me with a spoon"; or the pop lyric - all contribute^ are all as (10) as the tortured image of the academic, or the line the poet sweats over for a week. 1. A. circles B. surrenders C. supports D. surrounds 2. A. thought B. idea C. sight D. belief 199
  17. 3. A. justify B. inflate C. explain D. idealise 4. A.render B.reach C. expose D. leave 5. A. colloquial B. current C. common D.spoken 6. A. central B. stupid C. common D. simple 7. A. genii B. genius C. giant D. generalisation 8. A. turn B. twist C. use D. time 9. A. tour B. transport C. travel D. travelling 10. A. valued B. valid C. truthful D. imperfect B. Complete the following article by writing the missing words in the spaces provided. Use only one word per space. R A B I D BATS O U T OF H E L L Gold diggers in Peru are being attacked by vampire bats. These are not ordinary vampire bats; these ones carry rabies. No (1) than 24 gold diggers from the town of Puerto Maldonado have died of rabies in the last three weeks, after (2) their blood sucked by vampire bats. A special team of bat-catchers and doctors armed with 11,000 rabies vaccines has been sent to the area to try to stop the epidemic (3) . The bats known locally as "vampires" have a wingspan (4) more than one metre. They fly into the gold diggers' huts after dark and attach (5) to the sleeping miners' heads, necks and feet. The bats' (6) are very small and the victim rarely wakes up. According to Dr. Hugo Arana, head of the anti-rabies unit in Lima. The bats also (7) an anticoagulant in their sahva which makes the blood flow more freely. This makes the imitation of the bite much (8) He says that normally vampire bats feed on animals (9) probably as a result of the rabies they simply look for the nearest living creature. Dr. Arana has plans to catch the bats by hanging nets between the trees. Meanwhile local priests are trying to persuade the miners (10) these attacks are not the work of evil spirits. C. Read the following passage and then answer the questions below. SLEEP We all know that the normal human daily cycle of activity is of some 7-8 hours' sleep alternating with some 16-17 hours' wakefulness and that, broadly speaking, the sleep normally coincides with the hours of darkness. Our present concern is with how easily and to what extent this cycle can be modified. 200
  18. The question is no mere academic one. The case, for example, with which people can change from working in the day to working at night is a question of growing importance in industry where automation calls insistently for round- the-clock working of machines. It normally takes from five days to one week for a person to adapt to a reversed routine of sleep and wakefulness, sleeping during the day and working at night. Unfortunately, it is often the case in industry that shifts arc changed every week; a person may work from 12 midnight to 8 a.m., one week, 8 a.m., to 4 p.m., the next, and 4 p.m. to 12 midnight the third and so on. This means that no sooner has he got used to one routine than he has to change to another, so that much of his time is spent neither working nor sleeping very efficiently. One answer would seem to be longer periods on each shift, a month, or even three months. Recent research by Bonjer (1960) of the Netherlands, however, has shown that people on such systems will revert to their normal habits of sleep and wakefulness during the weekend and that this is quite enough to destroy any adaptation to night work built up during the week. The only real solution appears to be to hand over the night shift to a corps of permanent night workers whose nocturnal wakefulness may persist through all weekends and holidays. An interesting study of the domestic hfe and health of night-shift workers was carried out by Brown in 1957. She found a high incidence of disturbed sleep, digestive disorder and domestic disruption among those on alternating day and night shifts, but no abnormal occurrence of these symptoms among those on permanent night work. This latter system then appears to be the best long-term policy, but meanwhile something may be done to relieve the strains of alternate day and night work by selecting those people who can adapt most quickly to the changes of routine. One way of knowing when a person has adapted is by measuring his performance, but this can be laborious. Fortunately, we again have a physiological measure which correlates reasonably well with the behavioural one, in this case performance at various times of the day or night, and which is easier to take. This is the level of body temperature, as taken by an ordinary clinical thermometer. People engaged in normal daytime work will have a high temperature during the hours of wakefulness and a low one at night; when they change to night work the pattern will only gradually reverse to match the new routine and the speed with which it does so parallels, broadly speaking, the adaptation of the body as a whole, particularly in terms of performance and general alertness. Therefore by taking bodv temperature at intervals of two 201
  19. hours throughout the period of wakefulness it can be seen how quickly a person can adapt to a reversed routine, and this could be used as a basis for selection. So far, however, such a form of selection does not seem to have been applied in practice. From "Sleep and Dreams" by Robert Wilkinson Choose the best answer to each question. 1. The main theme of the passage is A. the effects of lack of sleep. B. sleep and body temperature. C. how easily people can get used to working at night. D. the effect of automation on working efficiency. 2. Why is the question "no mere academic one"? A. Because of research by Bonjer and Brown. B. Because sleep normally coincides with the hours of darkness. C. Because some people can change their sleeping habits easily. D. Because shift working in industry requires people to change their sleeping habits. 3. The main problem about night work is that A. people do not want the inconvenience of working on night shifts. B. people are disturbed by changing from day to night routines and bark. C. not all industries work at the same hours. D. it is difficult to fine a corps of good night workers. 4. The best answer to the problem seems to be A. not to change shifts from one week to the next B. to have longer periods on each shift. C. to employ people who will always work at night. D. to find ways of selecting people who adapt quickly. 5. Scientists are able to measure adaptation by taking body temperature because A. body temperature is a good basis for selection. B. people have low temperatures at night. C. the temperature reverses when the routine is changed. D. people have high temperatures when they are working efficiently. 6. "The third" (line 13) means A. the third week. B. the third shift. C. a third of the time. D. the third routine. 202
  20. 7. "Another" (Unc 14) means A. another routine. B. another shift. C. another week. D. another person. 8. "This latter system" (line 28) refers to A. Brown's research. B. spending a month or even three months on each shift. C. having the same people on night shift all the time. D. alternating day and night shifts. 9. "This" (line 32) refers to A. a person's performance. B. measuring a person's performance. C. the physiological measure. D. knowing when a person has adapted. 10. "This" (Une 35) refers to A. a physiological measure. B. performance at various times of the day or night. C. the level of body temperature. D. a person's performance. P R A C T I C E 10 PART ONE: PHONOLOGY Pick out the word whose bold part is pronounced differently from those of the others. 1. A. jumbo B.junior C. junk D. juggle 2. A. management B. manacle C. malt D. malfunction 3. A. troll B. doll C. tropical D. otter 4. A. relents B. religion C. relics D. relive 5. A. spill B. shield C. cement D. executive 6. A. third B. threat C. thus D. thunder 7. A. wholly B. whiten C. whose D. whoop 8. A. launch B. digestion C. suggestion D. Greenwich 9. A. caress B. career C. carnivore D. carouse 10. A. hood B.hook C. doom D.good 203
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