Unit_4: Hardware and software

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Unit_4: Hardware and software

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In order to use computers effectively to solve problems in our environment, computer systems are devised. A “system” implies a good mixture of integrated parts working together to form a useful whole. Computer systems may be discussed in two parts.

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  1. Unit 4 Hardware and software In order to use computers effectively to solve problems in our environment, computer systems are devised. A “system” implies a good mixture of integrated parts working together to form a useful whole. Computer systems may be discussed in two parts. The first part is hardware – the physical, electronic, and electromechanical devices that are thought of and recognized as "“computers"” The second part is software – the programs that control and coordinate the activities of the computer hardware and that direct the processing of data. Output Input Computer Secondary storage Figure 7.1. Hardware components of a basic computer system Figure 7.1 show diagrammatically the basic components of computer hardware joined together in a computer system. The centerpiece is called either the computer, the processor, or usually the central processing unit (CPU). The term “computer” usually refers to those parts of the hardware in which calculations and other data manipulations are performed, and to the internal memory in which data and instructions are stored during the actual execution of programs. The various peripherals, which include input and/or output devices, various secondary memory devices, and so on, are attached to the CPU. Computer software can be divided into two very broad categories – system software and applications software. The former is often simply referred to as “systems”. These, when brought into internal memory, direct the computer to perform tasks. The later may be provided along with the hardware by a systems supplier as part of a computer product designed to answer a specific need in certain areas. These complete hardware/software products are called turnkey system. The success or failure of any computer system depends on the skill with which the hardware and software components are selected and blended. A poorly chosen system can be a monstrosity incapable of performing the tasks for which it was originally acquired. Words and expressions hardware software application software turnkey system processor 1
  2. Exercises I. Main idea Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices? 1. Only hardware is necessary to make up a computer system. 2. Software alone doesn’t constitute a computer system. 3. A computer system needs both hardware and software to be complete II. Understanding the passage Indicate whether the following ideas are stated or not stated (S?NS) in the text. 1. A system implies a good mixture of parts working together. 2. Input and output devices operate more slowly than the decision-making devices. 3. The control unit and the arithmetic-logical unit are part of the processor. 4. The “computer” is the hardware. 5. Software is the programs on cards, tapes and disks. 6. The processor is usually referred to as the CPU. 7. The word “computer” means the processor and the internal memory. 8. Systems software is usually referred to as programs. 9. Complete hardware/software products are called turnkey systems. 10. Computers process specially prepared items of information. III. Locating information Find the passage in the text where the following ideas are expressed. 1. the hardware consists of the physical devices of the computer. 2. In order to solve problems, an appropriate computer system must be developed. 3. The “computer” is the CPU and the internal memory. 4. The success of failure of a computer system depends on the proper mixture of hardware and software. 5. There are two parts to a computer system. 6. Computer software can be divided into two parts. 7. The software is the programs. 8. The peripheral devices are attached to the CPU. IV. Contextual reference Look back at the text and find out what the words on bold typeface refer to. 1. two parts 6. in which 2. that 7. the former 3. that 8. these 4. that 9. the latter 5. in which 10. it V. Understanding words Refer back to the text and find synonyms for the following words. 1. developed 2. infers 3. joined 4. chosen 2
  3. Now refer back to the text and find antonyms for the following words. 1. segregated 2. useless 3. narrow 4. well VI. Word forms choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentences 1. integration, integrate, integrated, integrating a. Some computer manufacturers have ________ both input and output devices into one terminal. b. The success of any computer system depends on the ________ of all its parts to form a useful whole. c. ________ input and output devices into peripheral has reduced the area needed for a computer installation. 2. coordination, coordinate, coordinated, coordinating, coordinator a. The control unit of a processor ________ the flow of information between the arithmetic unit and the memory. b. ________ the many activities in a computer department is the job of the department head. c. The ________of a language institute has assistant to help him and may have access to a computer to help him with the ________ of the many programs, timetables, space and students results. 3. diagram, diagrammatic, diagrammatically, diagrammed a. Very often manufacturers provide ________ representations of the internal workings of a computer. b. A ________ is a drawing that shows how something is arranged rather than what it actually looks like. c. A few ideas have been ________ for you in this book. 4. interchange, interchangeable, interchangeably, interchanged a. The word “arithmetic logic” and “arithmetic-logical” can be used ________ b. There is often an ________ of ideas among computer scientists. c. There is a big difference between an input and an output. These cannot be ________ 5. division, divide, divisible a. It is often difficult for computer science students to ________ their time up proportionally between studying and programming. b. Are all numbers ________ by three? c. There is always a ________ of labor within a computer company. VII. Content Review 1. match the words in column A with the words or statements in column B A B 1. hardware a. the computer 2. software b. input/output and secondary memory devices 3. processor c. short for central processing unit 4. peripherals d. physical electronic and electromagnetic devices 5. systems software e. hardware plus software 6. applications software f. hardware/software packages 3
  4. 7. turnkey systems g. used for a specific job 8. CPU h. the programs 2. Use the following diagram which shows the relationship between the system and its parts to complete the paragraph. Computer system Hardware software Central processing Peripheral Systems Applications unit devices software software Secondary Input/ Output memory A computer system consists of two components: _______and _______. Each component is subdivided into different parts. The Central Processing Unit and the _______ constitute the- _______ component. Systems software and_______ comprise the_______ component. Devices that are used for secondary storage are considered part of the_______ component. These devices along with Input and Output devices are referred to as_______ devices. 4
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