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Vấn đề người kể chuyện trong diễn ngôn truyện kể

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Bài viết làm sáng tỏ việc xác định một vài điểu then chốt của người kể chuyện trong diễn ngôn truyện kể, từ đó đưa ra được một số căn cứ giúp cho việc xác định Người kể chuyện trong truyện kể được rõ ràng và nhất quán.

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Nội dung Text: Vấn đề người kể chuyện trong diễn ngôn truyện kể

N G 6 N NGtr & Bin<br /> <br /> S6NG<br /> <br /> s l 4 (246)-2016<br /> <br /> NGON N G C VOI VAN CHLTONGI<br /> <br /> VAN DE NGlTcn KE CHUYEN<br /> TRONG DIEN NGON TRUYEN KE<br /> THE NARRATOR IN THE NARRATTVE DISCOURSE<br /> NGUYfiN THJ THU THtY<br /> (TS; Dfi hfc Sir ph«m Hd Nfi)<br /> Abstract: This article discusses about the narrator in the narrative discourse, compares<br /> the narrator and implied author, focalizer, character, voice,...in order to find out possible<br /> similarities and differences between of them. Also, we aim at defining the nairatoi in<br /> recitation, which helps the reader to understand the writer s intention expressed in the text<br /> easily and correctiy.<br /> Key words: narrator; implied author; focalizer; narrative discouise.<br /> 1, Din nhf p<br /> gpi khdc nhau: NKC d ngdi thft nhit vd<br /> Ngudi ki chuyfn ( NKC) Id vin di dugc NKC d ngfii tiift'ba, NKC chiing nhdn, NKC<br /> quan tam khd nhiiu trong nhihig ndm gin su quan, NKC todn tri,...[4] song d day<br /> ddy d cd ITnh vuc tu su hoc vd ngfin ngft hpc. chiing tfii chi Ivra chgn thu$t ngft NKC hldng<br /> Tuy nhifin, trong nhiiu nghifin cftu vi ngudi minh vd NKC hdm in, d\ia vdo ± su xuit<br /> ke chuydn, vi^c xdc dinh nhdn v§t ndy cdn hien cfta NKC xung "tfii" [7].<br /> gdp nhiiu vudng mdc vd fliiiu nhit qudn.<br /> 2.3. Ngirdi ki chuydn cd bdn chit ludng<br /> Trudc thuc te dd, bdi bdo ndy ciia chung tfii thi, pha tgp vd da difn mgo<br /> muin ldm sdng td mot vdi diem then chit, tft<br /> Theo Way C. Booth, "moi m^t tdc phim<br /> dd dua ra dugc mfit si cdn eft giup cho vi$c deu chfta dii thoai hdm in gifta tdc gid xdc djnh NKC tiong truy$n ki dugc r5 rdng NKC - nhdn vjt vd d^c gid. Vd m§tttongso<br /> vd nhit qudn.<br /> lion ngudi ndy cd the dong nhit vdi mqt<br /> 2. M$t vai n^t ve ngirdi ke chuydn<br /> ttong s6 nhihig ngudi kia" [6, ti.99]. Qua<br /> 2.J. Coi truyen ki la san phim cua hojit<br /> khdo sdt tdc pham chiing tfii thiy nh^ djnli<br /> dfing giao tiep bdng ngfin ngft thi NKC Id<br /> ngudi ndi trong tdc phim, ngudi sft dyng cdc ndy Id hit sftc xdc ddng. Tfty tftng ttuimg<br /> phuong ti?n ngfin ngft de t ^ thdnh Idi ki, hgp cy thi NKC c6 the cd nhfing "gomg<br /> mjt", "di$n m?io" giing vdi nhihig ngiicii<br /> hie NKC Id chu thi cua hdnh vi ki chuy$n.<br /> 2.2. NKC cftng vdi nhdn v^t vd dfic gid Id khdc:<br /> - NKC cd thi ding nhit vdi nhto vjt<br /> nhftng yiu ti khong thi tiiiiu tiong mfit<br /> imy^n ki. Ndi nhu Katie Wale thi "qud trinh tiong tiudng hgp Id NKC tudng mini.<br /> t\l svi it nhat cd ba nhdn vat khdi phat: nhdn Chdng han nhdn v$t ThuintixmgTudng vl<br /> v$t (he), ngudi ki (I) va ngudi dgc (you) htm cua Nguyen Huy Tlii$p.<br /> - NKC cd flii ding nhit vdi tdc gid htai<br /> hojc ki md ngudi ta ndi tdi (he - NTTT chii<br /> fliich), ke ndi (I - NTTT chftfliich)vd ki md in trong trudng hgp Id NKC hdm in. Tic<br /> ngudi ta ndi vdi (you - NTTT chu thich)" gid hdm an ciing la ngudi to chftc vdn bdn,<br /> [12 ]. Theo quan diim ndy cua Katie vd li chju ttdch nhi^m ve svr cd mjit hay sv v3ng<br /> fliuyit giao tiep thi ro rdng ngudi ndi (NKC) mat cua bO ph$n ndy hay bg ph$n khdc cia<br /> lufin lufin d ngoi thft nhit. Cho nfin mjc dil chuyfn trong truyfn vd bdi hai con ngiiJi<br /> cd nhiiu cdch phdn chia NKC vd nhiiu tfin nay dugc tdch ra khdi nhftng sif ki?n vi c6<br /> <br /> J<br /> <br /> Si4(246)-2016<br /> <br /> NG6N NGC & Bin S6NG<br /> <br /> flii th5m chl khfing thiit I$p mOt mil quan<br /> h$ diin ngfin ndo vdi dfic gid hdm in.<br /> - Ngudi ki cd flii ding nhit vdi d$c gid<br /> hdm in tixing cdc truy$n DTNT hay ddng<br /> tim hi. Trong BTNT vd ddng tdm hi, NKC<br /> hi phdnflidnraldm hai: vfta Id ngudi ki vfta<br /> Id ngudi nghe, t(i tdm si/ vdi chinh minh...<br /> Nhu v$y cd the thiy: NKC cd thi Id tdc<br /> gid hdm in, cd thi Id nhdn vat, cd thi Id<br /> d(c gid hdm in; bdn chit cfta anh ta Id bdn<br /> chit lu&ng thi, pha t?p vd da di$n mao<br /> [S]. Song cdi quan ttgng anh ta cfing<br /> khong phdi Id ai trong s i nhiing ngudi iy,<br /> anh ta vin khdc nhdn v$t, khdc tdc gid<br /> hdm in vd d$c gid hdm in. Chinh bdn chit<br /> ndy se giup anh ta thdm nh^p m$t cdch<br /> uyin chuyen vdo thi gidi dugc mifiu td,<br /> d$c bi|t Id sS giiip anh ta cd nhiiu cdch ke<br /> chuy?n. Nhimg cflng chlnh cdi bdn chit<br /> ludng thi, pha t?ip vd da di$n m^io ndy gdy<br /> khd khdn cho vifc xdc djnh NKC trong tdc<br /> phim.<br /> 2.4. Su xuit hi?n ciia NKC ttong truy$n<br /> Id rit da djng bdi cdi bdn chit pha tjp vd da<br /> di|n m?o kia cfta anh ta. Thudng tU ttong<br /> m$t truyen chi cd mgt NKC nhung biiu hi^n<br /> cfta anh ta khfing phdi luc ndo cflng thuin<br /> nhit trong suit cdu chuy$n. Cd nhthig<br /> trayen, NKC tiii hifn r6 vai trd ki chuyfin<br /> ciia minh tft diu din cuii, viia nhin [xin xem<br /> khdi n i ^ diim nhin trong tdi li$u tham khdo<br /> si 8] viia ki (Thuin ttong Tudng vi huu,<br /> >IK(5 hdm in trong Khdng cd vua cfta<br /> Nguyin Huy Thifji), cd nhftng truyen NKC<br /> hieu hi$n bdng nhieu guong m|it khdc nhau,<br /> chdng hgn: Chi Pheo cfta Nam Cao, Ngudl a<br /> bin sdng Chdu cua Suong Nguyft Mudi,<br /> Hoa chanh ti'di vif cfla Vdn Nhu Cuong...<br /> Trong truyf n Ngudi d bin sdng Chdu, phin<br /> Idn cdu chuyfn dugc ki bdng gigng difu,<br /> diim nhin cfta hi Mai - mfit c6 hgc smh cip<br /> ba trudng huyfn; cd ch5 dugc ki bdng gigng<br /> difu, diim nhin cila NKC hdm in, cd Mc l?i<br /> dugc ki flieo gigng difu, diim nhhi cua<br /> <br /> 81<br /> <br /> nhftng ngudi Ifah cfing binh,...Truyfn Hoa<br /> chanh trdi vif cfing chi cd mft NKC nhung<br /> todn bf cdu chuyfn dugc ki bdng lii ki ci<br /> tich cfla mgt NKC hdm ia, din phin vl<br /> flianh, NKC ndy dft ngft xung "tfii". Tniyfn<br /> hifn dgi cd flii xuit hifn nhiiu NKC, vi dy<br /> Hdu thien dudng cfla Nguyin Thj Thu Huf<br /> cd hai NKC: ngudi kifliftnhit xung "tfii" ki<br /> vi cuf c ddi cfla chinh minh, ngudi ki tiift<br /> hai Id NKC hdm in, xuit hifn d phin cuii<br /> cfla ttuyfn; tiiiyfn Sdm h6i mudn cfla Lf<br /> CSng cung cd hai NKC,...Biiu hifn da d^g<br /> ndy Id nhftng thdch thftc khiin cho vifc xdc<br /> djnh NKC tiong tiniyfn ki gSp nhiiu khd<br /> khdn. Dudi ddy, chftng tfii xm trinh bdy mfit<br /> si vin di lifn quan din NKC nhdm Idm rS<br /> ranh gidi gifta NKC vd cdc nhjn to di bi<br /> nhim lin nhu tdc gid hdm in, ngudi tifu<br /> diim hda, nhdn v§t,... Hi vgng cdi ranh gidi<br /> rfi rdng ndy sS giftp cho vifc xdc djnh NKC<br /> trong truyfn ki dugc di ddng hon.<br /> 3. Ngordi ke chuyfn vd cdc nhdn t i c6<br /> lifn quan<br /> 3.1. Ngirdi ki chuydn vd tdc gid hdm &n<br /> NKC vd tdc gid hdm an Id hai chu flii cd<br /> nhiiu diim khd gin nhau nen trong th\rc ti<br /> dd xdy ra khfing it nhim lin. Nhiiu nhd<br /> nghifn cftu dd dfing nhit NKC vdi tdc gid<br /> ndy. Nhung ddy vin Id hai ngudi khdc nhau.<br /> NKC Id chfl thi cfla hdnh vi ki chuyfn, cdn<br /> tdc gid hdm in Id chfl thi cfla hdnh vi sdng<br /> t90 nghf thu$t. Hdnh vi sdng t^o nghe thuft<br /> bao hdm hdnh vi ki chuyfn, cung tftc Id<br /> NKCfliuficvi tiii gidi ttuyfn ki, mfit kiiu<br /> nhdn vft do tdc gid hdm in hu ciu di giup<br /> minh ki mft cdu chuyfn.<br /> - Trudng hgp dl nhim lin nhit gifta<br /> NKC vd tdc gid hdm in chinh Id trudng<br /> hgp tniyfn ke cd NKC hdm in. Bdi s\i<br /> khfing hifn difn bdng hinh thftc nhan xung<br /> ngfii thu nhit, vd thudng thi NKC cd gigng<br /> ki tCmg trdi, uyfn bdc - giing gigng tdc<br /> gid. Vi dy : Nhd ldo Klin sdu ngudi.<br /> Todn ddn dng. Bd Nhdn, vg ldo Kiin, mdt<br /> <br /> 82<br /> <br /> NGON NGf & Ddi S 6 N G<br /> <br /> S64(246)-2016<br /> <br /> dd mudi mdt ndm, luc do ldo Klin ndm truyfn cd DN lifn ngodi vd truyfn cd BS<br /> muai ba tudi, cdi tudi odl odm, Idy vg niia todn tri. Trong nhthig truyfn ki kiiu niy,<br /> cUng da, khdng Idy vg niia cUng dd. Ldo cdu chuyfn dugc ki tft DN cfla mft NKC<br /> Kiin chgn cdi dd it hem, a vdy [18, tr.86].<br /> hdm in. Mgi sy ddnh gid, cdm nhfn, quan<br /> Vdi tniyfn ke kiiu nay, ta thiy tdc gid sdt,...diu Id cfta NKC hdm in dftng ngoii<br /> hdm in cfing Id ngudi tfi chftc vdn bdn, quan sdt vd ki 1^ cdu chuyfn.<br /> chju ttdch nhifm vi sy cd m^t hay sy vdng<br /> - NTDH Id nhdn vft (NTDH = nhdn vft)<br /> m^t cfla bf phfn ndy hay bf p h ^ khdc cfla<br /> NTDH Id nhdn vft d ngfii thft ha ttong<br /> chuyfn trong truyfn vd bdi hai con ngudi nhftng tniyfn cd NKC hdm in, kiflieoBN<br /> ndy dugc tdch ra khdi nhftng sy kifn vd cd ben trong tya vdo DN cua nhdn vft di ke.<br /> thi thfm chi khfing thiit l^p mfit mii quan Tnidng hgp ndy, NTDH Id nhln vft cd suy<br /> hf diin ngfin ndo vdi dfc gid hdm in.<br /> nghl, cd host dfng ty cdm nhfa Vd mii<br /> 3.2. Phin bi$t ngudi ki chuy$n vdi quan hf (vai) gifta cdc nhdn vft trong trayfa<br /> dugc xdc dinh trong quan hf vdi NTBH niy<br /> ngirdi tiSu diim hda<br /> Ngudi tifu diim hda (focalizer) Id thuat chft khfing phdi vdi NKC hdm in. ChJng<br /> ngft md G.Genette dua ra ndm 1972. Ngudi hgn, Mai trong Ngudi d bin sdng Chdu (sdd)<br /> tieu diim hod (NTBH) hay chft flii cfla DN Id NTBH dong flidi Id mft nhdn vat hong<br /> la nhdn vft md nhfn thftc cfta anh ta sS dinh truyfn.<br /> hudng cho sy phdt triin cfta truyfn [II,<br /> - NTDH vfta Id nhan vft vfta 14 NKC<br /> tt.29]. Ndi cdch khdc, NTBH Id ngudi fliyc (NTDH s nhdn vft s NKC)<br /> hifn hdnh vi nhln - hdnh vi quan sdt, cam<br /> Trudng hgp ndy, NTDH Id NKC tudng<br /> nh$n, ddnh gid,... Id xuat phdt diim di djnh minh ding thdi Id mfit nhdn vat cfla ttuyfn,<br /> vi gid tri ciia thi gi(5i hifn thyc ttong truyfn. ki chuyfn mhih hofc ki chuyfn ngudi khdc<br /> NTBH cdn dugc ggi Id ngicd^ phdn dnh tft quan sdt cfta minh. Chdng han, nhdn vjt<br /> (reflector) [din flieo 12, tt.I79]. Vi dy, Mai<br /> Thuin xung "tfij" ki chuyfn cha nflnh ttong<br /> trong Nguoi a bin sdng Chdu cfta Suong<br /> Nguyft Minh Id NTDH, Mai Id ngudi quan tixiyf n Tudng vi huu (Nguyin Huy Thifp) 14<br /> sdt, cdm nh§n, ddnh gid vi dng bd, me, di NTBH. Nhdn vft Trflc tiong Miia idng im<br /> M&y, chd San,... Vd mgi gid tri cfla thi gidi dp (Nguyin Thi Thu Huf) cung li mft<br /> hifn thyc trong truyfn, chdng han quyin lyc NTBH xung "tfii" ki chuyfn chmh mhih.<br /> vd than hihi cfla cdc nhdn vft dng, bd, me, di - NTDH khfing phdi Id NKC cung khong<br /> phdi bat eft nhdn vat ndo ttong tmyfn<br /> Mdy, chu San,... Id dugc dinh vi tu Mai.<br /> (NTBH * nhdn vft * NKC)<br /> Ddc Unh cfta NTDH Id: anh ta Id ngudi<br /> Dd Id d tradng hgp tiuyf n ki cd NKC<br /> nghl hodc cdm fliiy mft cdch tryc tiep dii tudng minh, nhung NKC tudng minh niy<br /> vdi dfc gid. Anh ta khfing phdi Id ngudi phdt khfing fliam gia vdo hdnh dfing cua tmyfn,<br /> ngfin trong tiiiyfn (tior trudng hgp NTDH cung khfing phdi Id chfl flii cdm nhfn, quan<br /> cung ding flidi Id NKC). NTDH cd flii Id sdt, anh ta chi cd nhifm vy ki chuyfn. Nhu<br /> NKC, cd flii Id nhdn vft; cd tiii khong la ai vfy,tiTidchit NTDH khfing phdi Id NKC.<br /> trong si hai ngudi ndy.<br /> VI dy Truyfn Hoa chanh trdi W)<br /> - NTBH Id ngudi ki chuyfn (NTDH = (Vdn Nhu Cuong). Mdi din sau khi kit thiic<br /> NKC)<br /> tiuyfn, NKC mdi xuit hifn d phin vilhanh:<br /> Dd Id trudng hgp NTDH ding flidi' Id<br /> "Anh Chanh, hifn nay anh d ddu?<br /> NKC hdm in: (NTDH = NKC hdm in). Loai<br /> Niu anh dgc miu chuyfn ndy cfla tfii, xin<br /> NTDH ndy fliudng xuit hifn ttong nhftng anh viet thu vi tod soan bdo The Gidi M6i<br /> <br /> Si4(246)-2016<br /> <br /> NGON N G C & Ddi S 6 N G<br /> <br /> dp bao tin. re; chdc chdn anh sS chumg minh<br /> ling nhihig diiu tdi viit tren ddy diu Id sy<br /> flift" [15, tt.59]. Phin tiinSc dd, todn bfi cdu<br /> chuyfn dugc ki theo loi ki ci tich, NKC in,<br /> dftng trfn nhan vft: "Ngay xua, tgi Idng kia<br /> c6 doi trai gdi yfiu nhau rat mfn md. Ngudi<br /> con trai khod mgnh, dung cdm vd chdn<br /> fliinh. Cd con gdi thuy mi, nit na, hay lam<br /> hayldm,..."[I5,tt.56].<br /> Cdch ggi ten nhan vft: Bdi trai gdi, ngudi<br /> con trai, cd con gdi Id each ggi rit khdch<br /> quan tft DN cfta mft NTDH xa Ig ndo dd chft<br /> khfing thufc the gidi cfla truyfn. Ndi cdch<br /> khdc thi khong cd nhdn vft ndo ttong truyfn<br /> mang DN, chi don thuin Id cdc nhdn vft<br /> hinh dfng dudi sy quan sdt cfla mfit NTDH<br /> gidu mdt. NTDH giiu mdt ndy rfi rdng Id vfta<br /> khdc vdi cdc nhdn vft ttong truyfn, vfta khdc<br /> vdi NKC xung "tdi" xuat hifn d cuii tdc<br /> phim nhu dd ndi d tren.<br /> Chung ta biit ring: Trong hogt dgng ndi<br /> ndng thi ngudi ndi cd thi ndi vdi DN cfta<br /> chinh minh, cd thi ndi vdi DN cfta ngudi<br /> kbac. Tftc Id ngudi ndi cd thi Id chfl thi cfla<br /> DN, cung cd thi khfing phdi Id chfl thi cfla<br /> DN. Vi diiu ndy, D 5 Hftu Chdu cung dd<br /> phdn bift chu ngdn vd thuyit ngdn [xem I,<br /> tt.16]. 6 truyfn, sy phan bift nay cdn rtS<br /> hon. Hinh thftc hfi thogi ngim cho ph6p<br /> ngudi ndi (NKC) sft dyng nhiiu phuong<br /> fliftc ki khdc nhau di flii hifn DN. Cd<br /> nhftng trudng hgp md NTDH chi don thuin<br /> Id ngudi quan sdt, cdm nhfn thi gidi hifn<br /> ttiyc md khfing hi cd chftc ndng vd myc dich<br /> flie hifn nhiing quan sdt, cdm nhfn yd ddnh<br /> gid dd cfla minh cho dfc gid biit. Chdng hgn<br /> trudng hgp NTBH id nhdn vft d ngfii thft ba<br /> nhu Mai d truyfn Ngu&i d bin sdng Chdu dd<br /> din. Trong tinh huong ndy phdi cd mft<br /> ngudi khdc ki Igi nhftng cdm nhfn, suy nghi,<br /> quan sdt cfta Mai hie la tdi hifn Igi thi gidi<br /> hifn thyc tft DN cfla Mai, cfing tftc Id bgc If<br /> DN cua Mai cho dgc gid biit.<br /> <br /> vi khfing chi khdc nhau md cdn dii Ifp nhau.<br /> Nhftng biin ci khfing bao gid cd thi ty ki li<br /> dugc vi minh, ten ggi cdc sy vifc cung<br /> khfing phdi dugc khdc trong sy vft". Chuyfn<br /> nham lin gifta NKC vd NTBH sfi xdy ra<br /> ttong trudng hgp: NKC khfing xuat hifn tryc<br /> tiip vdi hinh thdi ciia dgi tft ngfii thft nhit<br /> ("tfii" hofc "chftng tfii") md xuat hifn hdm<br /> in sau nhiing quan sdt, cdm nhan cfla<br /> NTDH, cung ding thdi Id mfit nhdn vft ttong<br /> tmyfn. Ndi cdch khdc, NKC hod than vdo<br /> nhdn vft, "in" sau nhdn vgt de ki, ki theo<br /> DN cfla mfit nhan vft ttong tdc phim.<br /> <br /> Vi dy, truyfn Phien chg Gidt: NKC nhta<br /> dugc phin Idn hdnh dgng vdi dfii mdt cfla<br /> ldo Killing, nhung ldo Khflng khfing tft dd<br /> md tgo nfn cho chiing ta thifn truyfn Phlen<br /> chg Gidt. Ldo chi Id diim tya, dugc mfit<br /> NKC hdm in hf ting, ddm nhfn ttdch nhifm<br /> cfta ngudi ndi:<br /> Vi dy "Ai? Ai dd giit con khoang<br /> den nhd ldo, ngudi ban ddi cfla ldo? Ldo<br /> ndo? Thing gid chit til chit tift ndo, dura<br /> thin thing nao, bgn trfm cudp giet ngudi<br /> cfla dan ki bdi hay son trang ndo?<br /> Thi ldo chft ai? Dfta hung fliin Id ldo<br /> Khiing chft ai? Kd ndng chiec bfla tg len<br /> ddnh vdo diu con vft Id ldo chft ai. Tay chdn<br /> run idy bdy, md hdi todt ra sdng do ddm dia,<br /> ldo Khiing sg qud. Ldo da tid nfin dfic dc qud<br /> mftc, thft Id vfi cimg dc dfic, md ldo dd ttd<br /> nen dfc dc ngodi sftc nghl cfta con ngudi tft<br /> bao gid vay? Gid nhu ngudi khdc. Id ngudi<br /> biet ngoan ngoSn tudn phyc mft thft tfin gido<br /> nao thi chdc hdn Iftc ndy, gifta dfm hflm<br /> khuya khodt, ldo dd Ifp tftc qu^ sup xuing<br /> md hoi hd dgc kinh, dfp diu xufing dit md<br /> van ndi kf ton thd, tnit long dn ndn sdm hii<br /> trudc ding thifng lieng d tifin diu tren ci.<br /> Ddng ndy la mfit ki vfi dgo, ldo Khflng chl<br /> biit Ift minh ngoi dfy ttfn tim phdn gS md<br /> run sg mgt minh, vdt vd dau khd mgt minh,<br /> tijt minh Igi idy ldm sg hdi trudc chlnh minh.<br /> Ldo md trim^ Iritng hai con mdt md nhto ten<br /> Ndi nhu Todorov; "Nhin thiy ngfii nhd vd hung thin do ti vfta nhdp vdo ldo, ngay khi<br /> ndi len "Toi thiy mft ngfii nhd" Id hai hdnh<br /> <br /> 84<br /> <br /> NG6N NGP &D6IS6NG<br /> <br /> ldo htoh yfn ngft ttfn tim phdn quen thufc<br /> giiia nha minh.<br /> Dogn rii nhu mft ke may mdn thodt hog,<br /> ldo Khflng thd phdo. Thyc may! May qud!<br /> Vay Id khong phdi, chi Id trong giac mo.<br /> Khong phdi fliyc. Dftng, md ddy rii, con<br /> khoang den nhd lao Iflc nay dang khyt khjt d<br /> ngoai gian lid sau nhd bip.<br /> Lao ySn tdm ndm xuong. Vd nghi vi gidc<br /> ma tiip sau do..." [13, tt.587].<br /> Vdi dfii mdt cfta ldo Khftng, NKC dl ddng<br /> thdm nhdp vdo ddi song nfii tam cfta nhfn<br /> vft, fliiy dugc nhftng hdnh vi bfin ttong cfta<br /> nhan vft: cdc hdnh vi chi tdm ttgng, cdm<br /> gidc (run idy bdy, md hdi todt ra sdng do<br /> dim dia, run sg mgt minh, dau khd mdt<br /> minh, yin Idm,...); cdc hanh vi phdn dodn,<br /> gid djnh biiu hifn tu duy (gid nhu, thi chdc<br /> hdn...); ddo bift Id nhftng suy nghl tiiim kin<br /> cfta nhan vft (cdc y nghl ngi tam gidn tiep ty<br /> do).<br /> Vdi cdi nUn ndy, NKC dd hod than vdo<br /> suy nghl, tdm trang, thih cam,...cfla nhdn vft<br /> den mftc toi da, khiin cho Idi ki chuyfn sinh<br /> dfng, mang diy phong thdi, gigng difu nhfn<br /> vft. Cd flii vi flii md nhiiu tdc gid cho ddy Id<br /> kiiutixiyfnki d ngfii thft ba, tftc cd NKC d<br /> ngfii thft ba, nhu vfy lao Khflng Id NKC.<br /> Thyc ra flii ldo Khftng khfing phdi Id NKC,<br /> ldo chi Id nhan vat ddm ttdch chftc ndng cfla<br /> mft NTDH; ngudi quan sdt, cdm nhfn vi thi<br /> gidi di tft dd NKC ki Igi nhihig quan sdt,<br /> cdm nhfn ndy. NKC dd hod thdn vdo nhfn<br /> vat nhu dd ndi d tten, din mftc ta khd phdn<br /> bift dugc gigng ndo cfla lao Khiing, gigng<br /> ndo cua NKC. Md Igi thiy nhu gigng ldo<br /> Khiing Id chfl dgo, eft nhu Id ldo Khflng dang<br /> ki chuyfn vfy,...Nhimg dft cd nhu thi thi<br /> cfing khfing thi lin Ifn kieu truyfn ki ndy<br /> vdi kiiu truyfn ki ttong dd bdn thdn nhdn<br /> vat ke chuyfn (nhan vft ke chuyfn d ngfii<br /> thft idiat, xung bang tenrieng).Tftc la khfing<br /> cd tmyfn ndo dugc kf boi NKC d ngfii thft<br /> ba. NKC lufin d ngfii flift nhat, chi cd dieu<br /> <br /> Si4(246)-20I6<br /> <br /> anh ta cd xuit hifn tryc tiip ttong tdc phim<br /> hay khfing md thfii.<br /> Cdi Idm cho chung ta dl bi lim hidng<br /> ring cd NKC d ngfii thii ba nhuttongtiudng<br /> hgp ndy, chinh Id cdi ddi sing nfi tdm cda<br /> nhdn vft dugc phdn dnh rat phong phft, sinh<br /> dfing. Vd vi mft ngfin tft, nd dugc thi hi$n<br /> sinh dfng bdng cdc dfic thogi nfi tdm, Idi n6i<br /> bfin trong; sy mieu td cfn cdnh cdc bieu hifn<br /> cfta trgng thdi ngi tdm: tttychdn run idy bdy,<br /> md hdi todt ra sdng do ddm dia, sg, run sg,<br /> vgt vd dau khd, sg hdi,...; cdc thftc gid djnh<br /> Ifp lufn biiu hifn suy nghl ddn vft: gid nhu,<br /> chdc hdn, ddng ndy,... Ddy cfing chhih li<br /> ddc trung cfta phuong thftc thi hifn Idi k^<br /> chuyfn theo DN ben ttong.<br /> Cflng nhu vfy, ttong truyfn Ngudi d bin<br /> sdng Chdu: NKC Id ngudi ki hdm in, kl<br /> theo DN cfta Mai, chft Mai khfing phai li<br /> NKC. Mai Id NTBH, NKC di mugn giong<br /> Mai - mft cfi bf gdi dang hgc cip III ttudng<br /> huyfn di ki cfu chuyfn ve nhftng nguM<br /> than cua Mai. Cd nhu vfy, NKC mdi dl<br /> ddng hod vdo ddi song ngi tdm cia nhin vft,<br /> dl ddng hod vdo cdi gia dtoh cua Mai, de<br /> biit, di "tgc mgch" vdo mgi chuyfn cda gia<br /> dtoh iy. NKC cung nhd flii dd dft tftng<br /> thdnh vien cfla gia dinh Mai trudc dfc gii<br /> md khfing cin mft Idi gidi thifu ndo cd. T\i<br /> cdi DN cfla Mai, ta dd hinh dung mii quan<br /> hf gifta nhftng con ngudi iy vdi nhau nhu<br /> flie ndo:fing,bi, me, dl Mfy, chfl San, fliim<br /> Ba,...Id dugc nhhi tft Mai, ttong mii quan<br /> hf vdi Mai,...<br /> 3.3. Ngirdi ki chuydn vi nhdn v^<br /> NKC cd flii ding nhit vdi nhdn vft khi<br /> NKC xung "tfii" tudng mmhttongtiuyfn.<br /> Cd hai ttudng hgp xdy ra: 1) NKC xung<br /> "tfii" ki chuyfn ngudi khdc, chdng h?n<br /> Thuin trong Tudng vi huu cfta Nguyin Huy<br /> Thifp; 2) NKC xung "tfii" ki chuyfn cila<br /> chfah mmh nhu nhdn vft "tfii" trong Hdii<br /> thien duang, Miia ddng dm dp cfla Nguyto<br /> Thi Thu Huf Id diin htoh cho sy ding nhat<br /> <br />
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