Windows Server 2008 Inside Out- P10

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  1. Installing and Configuring File Services 417 2. On the Select Server Roles page, select File Services and then click Next. Read the introductory page and then click Next again. 3. On the Select Role Services page, select the check boxes for one or more role services to install, as shown in Figure 14-3. To allow for interoperability with UNIX, be sure to add Services For Network File System. Click Next. Chapter 14 Figure 14-3 Select the appropriate role services for the file server. 4. A DFS namespace is a virtual view of shared folders located on different servers. If you are installing DFS Namespaces, you’ll have three additional configuration pages: On the Create A DFS Namespace page, set the root name for the first namespace or elect to create a namespace later. The namespace root name should be something that is easy for users to remember, such as CorpData. In a large enterprise, you might need to create separate namespaces for each major division. On the Select Namespace Type page, specify whether you want to create a domain-based namespace or a stand-alone namespace. Domain-based namespaces can be replicated with multiple namespace servers to provide high availability but can have only up to 5,000 DFS folders. Stand-alone namespaces can have up to 50,000 DFS folders but are replicated only when you use failover server clusters and configure replication. On the Configure Namespace page, you can add shared folders to the namespace as well as namespaces that are associated with a DFS folder. Click Add. In the Add Folder To Namespace dialog box, click Browse. In the Browse For Shared Folders dialog box, select the shared folder to add
  2. 418 Chapter 14 Storage Management and then click OK. Next, type a name for the folder in the namespace. This name can be the same as the original folder name or a new name that will be associated with the original folder in the namespace. After you type a name, click OK to add the folder and complete the process. Note You do not have to configure DFS Namespaces at this time. After you’ve installed DFS Namespaces, DFS Replication, or both, you can use the DFS Management console to Chapter 14 manage the related features. This console is installed and available on the Administrative Tools menu. 5. With File Server Resource Manager, you can monitor the amount of space used on disk volumes and create storage reports. If you are installing File Server Resource Manager, you’ll have two additional configuration pages: On the Configure Storage Usage Monitoring page, you can select disk vol- umes for monitoring. When you select a volume and then click Options, you can set the volume usage threshold and choose the reports to generate when the volume reaches the threshold value. By default, the usage threshold is 85 percent. On the Set Report Options page, you can select a save location for usage reports. One usage report of each previously selected type is generated each time a volume reaches its threshold. Old reports are not automati- cally deleted. The default save location is %SystemDrive%\StorageReports. To change the default location, click Browse and then select the new save location in the Browse For Folder dialog box. You can also elect to receive reports by e-mail. To do this, you must specify the recipient e-mail addresses and the SMTP server to use. Note You do not have to configure monitoring and reporting at this time. After you’ve installed FSRM, you can use the File Server Resource Manager console to manage the related features. This console is installed and available on the Administrative Tools menu.
  3. Configuring Storage 419 6. If you are installing Windows Search Service, you’ll see an additional configuration page that allows you to select the volumes to index. Indexing a volume makes it possible for users to search a volume quickly. However, indexing entire volumes can affect service performance, especially if you index the system volume. Therefore, you might want to index only specific shared folders on volumes, which you’ll be able to do later on a per-folder basis. Note Chapter 14 You do not have to configure indexing at this time. After you’ve installed Windows Search Service, you can use the Indexing Options utility in Control Panel to manage the related features. 7. When you’ve completed all the optional pages, click Next. You’ll see the Confi rm Installation Options page. Click Install to begin the installation process. When Setup finishes installing the server with the features you’ve selected, you’ll see the Installation Results page. Review the installation details to ensure that all phases of the installation completed successfully. If the File Services role is installed already on a server and you want to install addi- tional services for a file server, you can add role services to the server using a similar process. In Server Manager, expand the Roles node and then select the File Services node. In the main pane, the window is divided into several panels. Scroll down until you see the Role Services panel and then click Add Role Services. You can then follow the previous procedure starting with step 3 to add role services. Configuring Storage When you install disks, you must configure them for use by choosing a partition style and a storage type to use. After you configure drives, you prepare them to store data by partitioning them and creating fi le systems in the partitions. Partitions are sections of physical drives that function as if they are separate units. This allows you to configure multiple logical disk units even if a system has only one physical drive and to apportion disks appropriately to meet the needs of your organization. Using the Disk Management Tools When you want to manage storage, the primary tool you use is Disk Management, as shown in Figure 14-4. Disk Management is a snap-in included in Computer Manage- ment and Server Manager. It can be added to any custom MMC you create as well. As long as you are a member of the Administrators group, you can use Disk Management to configure drives and software RAID.
  4. 420 Chapter 14 Storage Management Chapter 14 Figure 14-4 Disk Management is the primary tool for managing storage. Disk Management makes it easy to work with any available internal and external drives on both local and remote systems. You can start Disk Management by clicking Start, pointing to All Programs, selecting Administrative Tools, and then Computer Manage- ment. You’re automatically connected to the local computer on which you’re running Computer Management. In Computer Management, expand Storage, and then select Disk Management. You can now manage the drives on the local system. To use Disk Management to work with a remote system, right-click the Computer Management entry in the left pane, and select Connect To Another Computer on the shortcut menu. This displays the Select Computer dialog box (shown in the following screen). Type the domain name or IP address of the system whose drives you want to view, and then click OK.
  5. Configuring Storage 421 Disk Management has three views: Disk List Shows a list of physical disks on or attached to the selected system with details on type, capacity, unallocated space, and status. It is the only disk view that shows the device type, such as Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) or Integrated Device Electronics (IDE), and the partition style, such as master boot record (MBR) or GUID partition table (GPT). Graphical View Displays summary information for disks graphically according to disk capacity and the size of disk regions. By default, disk and disk region capac- ity are shown on a logarithmic scale, meaning the disks and disk regions are dis- Chapter 14 played proportionally. Change the Scaling Options to Get Different Disk Views You can also specify that you want all disks to be the same size regardless of capacity (which is useful if you have many disk regions on disks) or that you want to use a linear scale in which disk regions are sized relative to the largest disk (which is useful if you want to get perspective on capacity). To change the size settings for the Graphical View, click View, Settings, and then in the Settings dialog box, select the Scaling tab. Volume List Shows all volumes on the selected computer (including hard disk partitions and logical drives) with details on volume layout, type, fi le system, sta- tus, capacity, and free space. It also shows whether the volume has fault tolerance and the related disk usage overhead. The fault tolerance information is for soft- ware RAID only. Volume List and Graphical View are the default views. In Figure 14-4, the Volume List view is in the upper-right corner, and the Graphical View is in the lower-right corner. To change the top view, select View, choose Top, and then select the view you want to use. To change the bottom view, select View, choose Bottom, and then select the view you want to use. Disk Management’s command-line counterpart is the DiskPart utility. You can use Disk- Part to perform all Disk Management tasks. DiskPart is a text-mode command inter- preter that you invoke so that you can manage disks, partitions, and volumes. As such, DiskPart has a separate command prompt and its own internal commands. Although earlier releases of DiskPart did not allow you to format partitions, logical drives, and volumes, the version that ships with Windows Server 2008 allows you to do this using the internal format command. You invoke the DiskPart interpreter by typing diskpart at the command prompt. Disk- Part is designed to work with physical hard disks installed on a computer, which can be internal, external, or a mix of both. Although it will list other types of disks, such as CD/DVD drives, removable media, and universal serial bus (USB)-connected flash random access memory (RAM) devices, and allow you to perform some minimal tasks, such as assigning a drive letter, these devices are not supported.
  6. 422 Chapter 14 Storage Management After you invoke DiskPart, you can list available disks, partitions, and volumes by using the following list commands: List Disk Lists all internal and external hard disks on the computer List Volume Lists all volumes on the computer (including hard disk partitions and logical drives) List Partition Lists partitions, but only on the disk you’ve selected Then you must give focus to the disk, partition, or volume you want to work with by selecting it. Giving a disk, partition, or volume focus ensures that any commands you Chapter 14 type will act only on that disk, partition, or volume. To select a disk, type select disk N, where N is the number of the disk you want to work with. To select a volume, type select volume N, where N is the number of the volume you want to work with. To select a partition, first select its related disk by typing select disk N, and then select the parti- tion you want to work with by typing select partition N. If you use the list commands again after selecting a disk, partition, or volume, you’ll see an asterisk (*) next to the item with focus. When you are fi nished working with Disk- Part, type exit at the DiskPart prompt to return to the standard command line. Listing 14-1 shows a sample DiskPart session. As you can see, when you first invoke DiskPart, it shows the operating system and DiskPart version you are using as well as the name of the computer you are working with. When you list available disks, the out- put shows you the disk number, status, size, and free space. It also shows the disk parti- tion style and type. If there’s an asterisk in the Dyn column, the disk is a dynamic disk. Otherwise, it is a basic disk. If there’s an asterisk in the Gpt column, the disk uses the GPT partition style. Otherwise, it is an MBR disk. You’ll fi nd more information on parti- tion styles in “Using the MBR and GPT Partition Styles” on page 425. Listing 14-1 Using DiskPart: an example C:\> diskpart Microsoft DiskPart version 6.0.6001 Copyright (C) 1999-2007 Microsoft Corporation. On computer: CORPSVR02 DISKPART> list disk Disk ### Status Size Free Dyn Gpt -------- ---------- ------- ------ --- --- Disk 0 Online 56 GB 0 B * * Disk 1 Online 29 GB 0 B Disk 2 Online 37 GB 9 GB DISKPART> list volume Volume ### Ltr Label Fs Type Size Status Info ---------- --- --------- ----- ------- ------- ------ ------ Volume 0 F DVD-ROM 0 B Volume 1 G W2PFPP_EN CDFS CD-ROM 361 MB
  7. Configuring Storage 423 Volume 2 C Apps NTFS Partition 56 GB Healthy System Volume 3 D Data NTFS Partition 29 GB Healthy Volume 4 N Data2 NTFS Partition 28 GB Healthy Volume 5 S Partition 47 MB Healthy DISKPART> select disk 0 Disk 0 is now the selected disk. DISKPART> list partition Chapter 14 Partition ### Type Size Offset ------------- ---------------- ------ - ------- Partition 1 Primary 56 GB 32 KB DISKPART> select partition 1 Partition 1 is now the selected partition. DISKPART> list partition Partition ### Type Size Offset ------------- ---------------- ------- - ------ * Partition 1 Primary 56 GB 32 KB DISKPART> exit Leaving DiskPart... C:\> Adding New Disks Thanks to hot swapping and Plug and Play technologies—both supported by Windows Server 2008—the process of adding new disks has changed considerably from the days of Windows NT 4.0. If a computer supports hot swapping of disks, you can install new disks without having to shut down the computer. Simply insert the hard disk drives you want to use. If the computer doesn’t support hot swapping, you will need to shut down the computer, insert the drives, and restart the computer. Either way, after you insert the drives you want to use, log on and access Disk Manage- ment in the Computer Management tool. If the new drives have already been initialized, meaning they have disk signatures, they should be brought online automatically when you select Rescan Disks from the Action menu. If you are working with new drives that haven’t been initialized, meaning they lack a disk signature, when you choose to initial- ize the new disk, Windows Server 2008 will start the Initialize Disk Wizard. This wiz- ard will allow you to choose either the MBR or GPT partitioning style.
  8. 424 Chapter 14 Storage Management You can use Disk Management to initialize a new disk as well. In the Disk List view, the disk will be marked with a red down arrow icon, and the disk’s status will be listed as Not Initialized. You can then right-click the disk’s icon and select Initialize Disk. When the Initialize Disk Wizard starts, follow these steps to configure the disks: 1. Click Next to get to the Select Disks To Initialize page. The disks you added are selected for initialization automatically, but if you don’t want to initialize a particular disk, you can clear the related check box. 2. Select either the MBR or GPT partitioning style. Chapter 14 3. When the wizard finishes, the disk is ready for partitioning and formatting. SIDE OUT Windows Server 2008 can use disk write caching As discussed previously, storage performance is primarily a factor of a disk’s access time (how long it takes to register a request and scan the disk), seek time (how long it takes to find the requested data), and transfer rate (how long it takes to read and write data). By enabling disk write caching, you could reduce the number of times the operating system accesses the disk by caching disk writes and then performing several writes at once. In this way, disk performance is primarily influenced by seek time and transfer rate. The drawback of disk write caching is that in the event of a power or system failure the cached writes might not be written to disk, and this can result in data loss. Windows Server 2008 disables disk write caching by default, but you can enable it on a per-disk basis as long as write caching is supported by your hardware. Keep in mind that some server applications require disk write caching to be enabled or disabled, and if these applications use a particular set of disks, these disks must use the required setting for disk write caching. To configure disk write caching, start Computer Management, expand the System Tools node, and select Device Manager. In the details pane, expand Disk Drives, right-click the disk drive you want to work with, and then select Properties. In the Device Properties dialog box, select the Policies tab. Select or clear Enable Write Caching On The Disk as appropriate, and click OK.
  9. Configuring Storage 425 Using the MBR and GPT Partition Styles The term partition style refers to the method that Windows Server 2008 uses to organize partitions on a disk. Two partition styles are available: MBR and GPT. Originally, only x86-based computers used the MBR partition style, and only Itanium-based comput- ers running 64-bit versions of Windows used the GPT partition style. With Windows Server 2008, both 32-bit and 64-bit editions support both MBR and GPT. The GPT partition style will be recognized also in Windows Server 2003 as long as it has been upgraded to Service Pack 1 or later. This is true for both x86 and x64 platforms. With 64-bit versions of Windows, the GPT partition style is preferred and it is the only Chapter 14 partition style from which you can boot Itanium-based computers. The key difference between the MBR partition style and the GPT partition style has to do with how parti- tion data is stored. Note For this discussion, I focus on the basic storage type and won’t get into the details of the dynamic storage type. That’s covered in the next section. Working with MBR Disks MBR uses a partition table that describes where the partitions are located on the disk. The fi rst sector on a hard disk contains the MBR and a master boot code that’s used to boot the system. The MBR resides outside of partitioned space. Note It’s easy to confuse master boot record with boot sector. These are two different struc- tures on the hard drive. The master boot record contains the disk signature and partition table and is the first sector of the hard drive. A boot sector contains the BIOS parameter block and marks the first sector of the file system. MBR disks support a maximum volume size of up to 4 TB unless they’re dynamic disks and use RAID. MBR disks have two special types of partitions associated with them. The fi rst partition type, called a primary partition, is used with drive sections that you want to access directly for fi le storage. You make a primary partition accessible to users by creating a file system on it and assigning it a drive letter or mount point. The second partition type, called an extended partition, is used when you want to divide a sec- tion of a disk into one or more logical units called logical drives. Here, you create the extended partition first, then create the logical drives within it. You then create a file system on each logical drive and assign a drive letter or mount point.
  10. 426 Chapter 14 Storage Management Each MBR drive can have up to four primary partitions or three primary partitions and one extended partition. It is the extended partition that allows you to divide a drive into more than four parts. Note These rules apply to MBR disks that use the basic storage type. There’s also a storage type called dynamic. I discuss basic and dynamic storage types in “Working with Basic and Dynamic Disks” on page 428. Chapter 14 Working with GPT Disks GPT disks don’t have a single MBR. With GPT disks, critical partition data is stored in the individual partitions, and there are redundant primary and backup partition tables. Further, checksum fields are maintained to allow for error correction and to improve partition structure integrity. SIDE OUT GPT headers and error checking GPT disks use a primary and backup partition array. Each partition array has a header that defines the range of logical block addresses on the disk that can be used by parti- tion entries. The GPT header also defines its location on the disk, its globally unique identifier (GUID), and a 32-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC32) checksum that is used to verify the integrity of the GPT header. The primary GPT header is created directly after the protected MBR on the disk. The backup GPT header is located in the last sector on the disk. Firmware acts as the interface between a computer’s hardware and its operating system. Although most x86-based computers use the basic input/ouput system (BIOS) as their firmware, Itanium-based computers and some newer computers use the Extensible Firm- ware Interface (EFI). Only systems that use EFI will be able to boot directly to a GPT disk. But all editions of Windows 2008 can use GPT disks for data. A computer’s firmware verifies the integrity of the GPT headers by using the CRC32 checksum. The checksum is a calculated value used to determine whether there are errors in a GPT header. If the primary GPT header is damaged, firmware checks the backup header. If the backup header’s checksum is valid, the backup GPT header is used to restore the primary GPT header. The process of restoring the GPT header works much the same way if it is determined that the backup header is damaged—only in reverse. If both the primary and backup GPT headers are damaged, the Windows operating system won’t be able to access the disk.
  11. Configuring Storage 427 GPT disks support partitions of up to 18 exabytes (EB) in size and up to 128 parti- tions per disk. Itanium-based computers using GPT disks have two required partitions and one or more optional original equipment manufacturer (OEM) or data partitions. The required partitions are the EFI system partition (ESP) and the Microsoft Reserved (MSR) partition. Although the optional partitions that you see depend on the system configuration, the optional partition type you see the most is the primary partition. Pri- mary partitions are used to store user data on GPT disks. If you install the Windows Server 2008 64-bit edition on a new system with clean disks or an existing system with a clean disk, Setup will initialize the disk as a GPT disk (only for computers with EFI). Setup will offer to create the ESP and then will automati- Chapter 14 cally create the MSR partition. The ESP is formatted automatically using a fi le alloca- tion table (FAT). The ESP is required only on the first GPT disk, however. Additional GPT disks do not require an ESP. Further, a basic GPT disk might not contain primary partitions. For example, when you install a new disk and configure it as a GPT disk, the Windows operating system automatically creates the ESP and MSR partitions, but does not create primary partitions. Although GPT offers a significant improvement over MBR, it does have limitations. You cannot use GPT with removable disks, disks that are direct-attached using USB or IEEE 1394 (FireWire) interfaces, or disks attached to shared storage devices on server clusters. CAUTION ! It is recommended that you don’t use disk editing tools such as DiskProbe to make changes to GPT disks. Any change that you make using these tools renders the CRC32 checksums in the GPT headers invalid, and this can cause the disk to become inaccessi- ble. To make changes to GPT disks, you should use only Disk Management or DiskPart. If you are working in the EFI firmware environment, you’ll find there’s a version of DiskPart available as well—DiskPart.efi. Using and Converting MBR and GPT Disks Tasks for using MBR and GPT disks are similar but not necessarily identical. On an x86-based computer, you can use MBR for booting or for data disks and GPT only for data disks. On an Itanium-based computer, you can have both GPT and MBR disks, but you must have at least one GPT disk that contains the ESP and a primary partition or simple volume that contains the operating system for booting. Partitions and volumes on MBR and GPT disks can be formatted using FAT, FAT32, and NTFS. When you create partitions or volumes in Disk Management, you have the opportunity to format the disk and assign it a drive letter or mount point as part of the volume creation process. Although Disk Management lets you format the partitions and
  12. 428 Chapter 14 Storage Management volumes on MBR disks using FAT, FAT32, and NTFS, you can format partitions and vol- umes on GPT disks using only NTFS. If you want to format GPT disks by using FAT or FAT32, you must use either the Format or DiskPart command at the command prompt. Further, keep in mind that you can use Windows Server Backup to back up only NTFS partitions. If your server has partitions using other formats and you want to back them up, you’ll need to use a different backup utility. You can change partition table styles from MBR to GPT or from GPT to MBR. Changing partition table styles is useful when you want to move disks between x86-based com- puters and Intel Architecture 64 (IA-64)-based computers or you receive new disks that are formatted for the wrong partition table style. You can convert partition table styles Chapter 14 only on empty disks, however. This means the disks must either be new or newly for- matted. You could, of course, empty a disk by removing its partitions or volumes. You can use both Disk Management and DiskPart to change the partition table style. To use Disk Management to change the partition style of an empty disk, start Computer Management from the Administrative Tools menu or by typing compmgmt.msc at the command line, expand the Storage node, and then select Disk Management. All avail- able disks are displayed. Right-click the disk to convert in the Graphical View, and then click Convert To GPT Disk or Convert To MBR Disk as appropriate. To use DiskPart to change the partition style of an empty disk, invoke DiskPart by typing diskpart, and then selecting the disk you want to convert. For example, if you want to convert disk 3, type select disk 3. After you select the disk, you can convert it from MBR to GPT by typing convert gpt. To convert a disk from GPT to MBR, type convert mbr. Using the Disk Storage Types The term storage type refers to the method that Windows Server 2008 uses to structure disks and their contents. Windows Server 2008 offers three storage types: basic disk, dynamic disk, and removable disk. The storage type you use doesn’t depend on the pro- cessor architecture—it does depend, however, on whether you are working with fi xed or non-fi xed disks. When you are working with fi xed disks, you can use basic, dynamic, or both storage types on any edition of Windows Server 2008. When you are working with non-fi xed disks, the disk has the removable storage type automatically. Working with Basic and Dynamic Disks Basic disks use the same disk structure as earlier versions of the Windows operating system. When using basic disks, you are limited to creating four primary partitions per disk, or three primary partitions and one extended partition. Within an extended parti- tion, you can create one or more logical drives. For ease of reference, primary partitions and logical drives on basic disks are known as basic volumes. Dynamic disks were intro- duced in Windows 2000 as a way to improve disk support by requiring fewer restarts after disk configuration changes, improved support for combining disks, and enhanced fault tolerance using RAID configurations. All volumes on dynamic disks are known as dynamic volumes.
  13. Configuring Storage 429 SIDE OUT Disk issues when upgrading to Windows Server 2008 When you install Windows Server 2008 on a new system with unpartitioned disks, disks are initialized as basic disks. When you upgrade to Windows Server 2008, disks with partitions are initialized as basic disks. Windows 2000 had limited support for the fault- tolerant features found in Windows NT 4.0. In Windows 2000, you can use basic disks to maintain existing spanning, mirroring, and striping configurations and to delete these configurations. You cannot, however, create new combined or fault-tolerant drive sets using the basic disk type. Chapter 14 In Windows Server 2008, fault-tolerant sets that you created in Windows NT are not sup- ported. Before upgrading to Windows Server 2008, it is recommended that you remove the fault-tolerant features. Start by backing up the data. If you have a mirror set, break the mirror set and then run Windows Server 2008 Setup. If you have a volume set, stripe set, or stripe set with parity, you must delete the set before you upgrade. As long as you have a working backup, you can upgrade the disks to dynamic after installation, re-create the fault-tolerant set, and then restore the data from backup. Windows Server 2008 systems can use both basic and dynamic disks. You cannot, how- ever, mix disk types when working with volume sets. All disks, regardless of whether they are basic or dynamic, have five special types of drive sections: Active The active partition or volume is the drive section for system cache and startup. Some devices with removable storage might be listed as having an active partition (though they don’t actually have the active partition). Boot The boot partition or volume contains the operating system and its support files. The system and boot partition or volume can be the same. Crash dump The partition to which the computer attempts to write dump fi les in the event of a system crash. By default, dump files are written to the %System- Root% folder, but can be located on any desired partition or volume. Page file A partition containing a paging fi le used by the operating system. Because a computer can page memory to multiple disks, according to the way virtual memory is configured, a computer can have multiple page file partitions or volumes. System The system partition or volume contains the hardware-specific fi les needed to load the operating system. The system partition or volume can’t be part of a striped or spanned volume. The volume types are set when you install the operating system. On an x86-based computer, you can mark a partition as active to ensure that it is the one from which the computer starts. You can do this only for partitions on basic disks. You can’t mark an existing dynamic volume as the active volume, but you can convert a basic disk contain- ing the active partition to a dynamic disk. After the update is complete, the partition becomes a simple volume that’s active.
  14. 430 Chapter 14 Storage Management TROUBLESHOOTING Dynamic disks have limitations You can’t use dynamic disks on portable computers or with removable media. You can only configure disks for portable computers and removable media as basic disks with primary partitions. For computers that support booting multiple operating systems (multibooted), keep in mind that only Windows 2000 or later versions of the Windows operating system can use dynamic disks. Chapter 14 Using and Converting Basic and Dynamic Disks Basic disks and dynamic disks are managed in different ways. For basic disks, you use primary and extended partitions. Extended partitions can contain logical drives. Dynamic disks allow you to combine disks to create spanned volumes, to mirror disks to create mirrored volumes, and to stripe disks using RAID 0 to create striped volumes. You can also create RAID-5 volumes for high reliability on dynamic disks. You can change storage types from basic to dynamic and from dynamic to basic. When you convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk, existing partitions are changed to vol- umes of the appropriate type automatically and existing data is not lost. Converting a dynamic disk to a basic disk isn’t so easy and can’t be done without taking some drastic measures. You must delete the volumes on the dynamic disk before you can change the disk back to a basic disk. Deleting the volumes destroys all the information they con- tain, and the only way to get it back is to restore the data from backup. You should consider a number of things when you want to change the storage type from basic to dynamic. To be converted successfully, an MBR disk must have 1 mega- byte (MB) of free space at the end of the disk. This space is used for the dynamic disk database, which tracks volume information. Without this free space at the end of the disk, the conversion will fail. Because both Disk Management and DiskPart reserve this space automatically, primarily only if you’ve used third-party disk management utili- ties will you need to be concerned about whether this space is available. However, if the disk was partitioned using a much older version of the Windows operating system or a third-party utlity, this space might not be available either. A GPT disk must have contiguous, recognized data partitions to be converted success- fully. If the GPT disk contains partitions that the Windows operating system doesn’t recognize, such as those created by another operating system, you won’t be able to con- vert a basic disk to a dynamic disk. When you convert a GPT disk, the Windows oper- ating system creates LDM Metadata and LDM Data partitions as discussed in “LDM Metadata and LDM Data Partitions” on page 451. GPT disks that are dynamic will store the dynamic disk database in the LDM partitions instead of out at the end of the drive like on an MBR disk With either type of disk, you can’t convert drives that use sector sizes larger than 512 bytes. If the disk has large sector sizes, you must reformat the disk before converting. You can’t convert a disk if the system or boot partition uses software RAID. You must stop using the software RAID before you convert the disk.
  15. Configuring Storage 431 Both Disk Management and DiskPart can be used to change the storage type. Using Disk Management to Convert a Basic Disk to a Dynamic Disk To use Disk Management to convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk, start Computer Management from the Administrative Tools menu or by typing compmgmt.msc at the command line, expand the Storage node, and then select Disk Management. In Disk Management, right-click a basic disk that you want to convert, either in Disk List view or in the left pane of Graphical View, and select Convert To Dynamic Disk. In the Convert To Dynamic Disk dialog box (as shown in the following screen), select the disks you want to convert. If you’re converting disks that will be used in a RAID Chapter 14 volume, be sure to select all the basic disks in the set because they must be converted together. Click OK when you’re ready to continue. Next, the Disks To Convert dialog box shows the disks you’re converting along with details of the disk contents. To see the drive letters and mount points that are associ- ated with a disk, select the disk in the Disks list, and then click Details. If a disk cannot be converted for some reason, the Will Convert column will show No and the Disk Con- tents column will provide a reason, as shown in the following screen. You must correct whatever problem is noted before you can convert the disk. When you’re ready to start the conversion, click Convert. Disk Management will then warn you that after you finish the conversion you won’t be able to boot previous ver- sions of the Windows operating system from volumes on the selected disks. Click Yes
  16. 432 Chapter 14 Storage Management to continue. If a selected drive contains the boot partition, system partition, or a parti- tion in use, you’ll see another warning telling you that the computer will need to be rebooted to complete the conversion process. Using DiskPart to Convert a Basic Disk to a Dynamic Disk To use DiskPart to con- vert a basic disk to a dynamic disk, invoke DiskPart by typing diskpart, and then select the disk you want to convert. For example, if you want to convert disk 2, type select disk 2. After the disk is selected, you can convert it from basic to dynamic by typing convert dynamic. Using Disk Management to Change a Dynamic Disk Back to a Basic Disk To use Chapter 14 Disk Management to change a dynamic disk back to a basic disk, you must fi rst delete all dynamic volumes on the disk. Then right-click the disk, and select Convert To Basic Disk. This changes the dynamic disk to a basic disk, and you can then create new parti- tions and logical drives on the disk. Using DiskPart to Convert a Dynamic Disk to a Basic Disk To use DiskPart to con- vert a basic disk to a dynamic disk, invoke DiskPart by typing diskpart, and then select the disk you want to convert. For example, if you want to convert disk 2, type select disk 2. If there are any existing volumes on the disk, you must delete them. You can do this by typing clean. However, be sure to move any data the disk contains to another disk prior to deleting the disk volumes. After you delete all the volumes on the disk, you can convert the disk from dynamic to basic by typing convert basic. This changes the dynamic disk to a basic disk, and you can then create new partitions and logical drives on the disk. Converting FAT or FAT32 to NTFS On both MBR and GPT disks, you can convert FAT or FAT32 partitions, logical drives, and volumes to NTFS by using the Convert command. This preserves the fi le and direc- tory structure without the need to reformat. Before you use Convert, you should check to see whether the volume is being used as the active boot volume or is a system volume containing the operating system. If it is, Convert must have exclusive access to the volume before it can begin the conversion. Because exclusive access to boot or system volumes can be obtained only during startup, you will see a prompt asking if you want to schedule the drive to be converted the next time the system starts. As part of preparation for conversion, you should check to see if there’s enough free space to perform the conversion. You’ll need a block of free space that’s about 25 per- cent of the total space used by the volume. For example, if the volume stores 12 GB of data, you should have about 3 GB of free space. Convert checks for this free space before running, and if there isn’t enough, it won’t convert the volume. CAUTION ! Conversion is one-way only. You can convert only from FAT or FAT32 to NTFS. You can’t convert from NTFS to FAT or NTFS to FAT32 without deleting the volume and re-creating it using FAT or FAT32.
  17. Configuring Storage 433 You run Convert at the command line. Its syntax is as follows: convert volume /FS:NTFS where volume is the drive letter followed by a colon, drive path, or volume name. So, for instance, if you want to convert the E drive to NTFS, type convert e: /fs:ntfs. This starts Convert. As shown in the following example, Convert checks the current fi le system type and then prompts you to enter the volume label for the drive: The type of the file system is FAT32. Enter current volume label for drive E: Chapter 14 Provided you enter the correct volume label, Convert will continue as shown in the fol- lowing example: Volume CORPDATA created 4/10/2008 3:15 PM Volume Serial Number is AA6A-D44A Windows is verifying files and folders... File and folder verification is complete. Windows has checked the file system and found no problems. 91,827,680 KB total disk space. 91,827,672 KB are available. 8,192 bytes in each allocation unit. 11,478,460 total allocation units on disk. 11,478,459 allocation units available on disk. Determining disk space required for file system conversion... Total disk space: 91927860 KB Free space on volume: 91929680 KB Space required for conversion: 12080460 KB Converting file system Conversion complete Here, Convert examines the fi le and folder structure and then determines how much disk space is needed for the conversion. If there is enough free space, Convert performs the conversion. Otherwise, it exits with an error, stating there isn’t enough free space to complete the conversion. Several additional parameters are available as well, including /v, which tells Convert to display detailed information during the conversion, and /x, which tells Convert to force the partition or volume to dismount before the conversation if necessary. You can’t dismount a boot or system drive—these drives can be converted only when the system is restarted. On converted boot and system volumes, Convert applies default security the same as that applied during Windows setup. On other volumes, Convert sets security so the Users group has access but doesn’t give access to the special group Everyone. If you don’t want security to be set, you can use the /Nosecurity parameter. This parameter tells Convert to remove all security attributes and make all fi les and directories on the disk accessible to the group Everyone. In addition, you can use the /Cvtarea parameter to set the name of a contiguous file in the root directory to be a placeholder for NTFS system files.
  18. 434 Chapter 14 Storage Management Working with Removable Disks Removable is the standard disk type associated with removable storage devices. Work- ing with removable disks is similar to working with fi xed disks. Removable storage devices can be formatted with exFAT, FAT16, FAT32, or NTFS. Both Windows Vista with SP1 or later and Windows Server 2008 support exFAT with removable storage devices as well. The exFAT fi le system is the next generation file system in the FAT (FAT12/16, FAT32) family. Although retaining the ease-of-use advantages of FAT32, exFAT overcomes FAT32’s 4-GB file size limit and FAT32’s 32-GB partition size limit on Windows sys- Chapter 14 tems. exFAT also supports allocation unit sizes of up to 32,768 KB. exFAT is designed so that it can be used with and easily moved between any compliant operating system or device. Note Both Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 support hot-pluggable media that use NTFS volumes. This new feature allows you to format USB flash devices and other similar media with NTFS. Removable disks support network file and folder sharing. You configure sharing on removable disks in the same way as you configure standard fi le sharing. You can assign share permissions, configure caching options for offl ine file use, and limit the number of simultaneous users. You can share an entire removable disk as well as individual folders stored on the removable disk. You can also create multiple share instances. Where removable disks differ from standard NTFS sharing is that there isn’t necessarily an underlying security architecture. With exFAT, FAT, or FAT32, folders and fi les stored do not have any security permissions or features other than the basic read-only or hid- den attribute flags that you can set. Managing MBR Disk Partitions on Basic Disks A disk using the MBR partition style can have up to four primary partitions and up to one extended partition. This allows you to configure MBR disks in one of two ways: using one to four primary partitions or using one to three primary partitions and one extended partition. After you partition a disk, you format the partitions to assign drive letters or mount points.
  19. Managing MBR Disk Partitions on Basic Disks 435 SIDE OUT Drive letter assignment is initiated during installation The drive letters that are available depend on how a system is configured. The initial drive letters used by a computer are assigned during installation of the operating system. Setup does this by scanning all fixed hard disks as they are enumerated. For MBR disks, Setup assigns a drive letter to the first primary partition starting with C. Setup then scans floppy/Zip disks and assigns drive letters starting with A. Afterward, Setup scans CD/DVD-ROM drives and assigns the next available letter starting with D. Finally, Setup scans all fixed hard disks and assigns drive letters to all remaining primary Chapter 14 partitions. With GPT disks, Setup assigns drive letters to all primary partitions on the GPT disk start- ing with C. Setup then scans floppy/Zip drives and assigns the next available drive letter starting with A. Finally, Setup scans CD/DVD-ROM drives and assigns the next available letter starting with D. Creating Partitions and Simple Volumes Windows Server 2008 simplifies the Disk Management user interface by using one set of dialog boxes and wizards for both partitions and volumes. The fi rst three volumes on a basic drive are created automatically as primary partitions. If you try to create a fourth volume on a basic drive, the remaining free space on the drive is converted automati- cally to an extended partition with a logical drive of the size you designate by using the new volume feature it created in the extended partition. Any subsequent volumes are created in the extended partitions and logical drives automatically. In Disk Management, you create partitions, logical drives, and simple volumes by fol- lowing these steps: 1. In Disk Management’s Graphical View, right-click an unallocated or free area on the disk and then choose New Simple Volume. This starts the New Simple Volume Wizard. Read the Welcome page and then click Next. 2. Click Next to display the Specify Volume Size page, as shown in Figure 14-5. Then use the Simple Volume Size In MB field to specify how much of the available disk space you want to use for the volume. Keep the following in mind before you set the size and click Next: You can size a primary partition to fill an entire disk, or you can size it as appropriate for the system you’re configuring. Because of the availability of FAT32 and NTFS, you no longer must worry about the 4-GB volume size and 2-GB file size limits that applied to 16-bit FAT systems. This allows you to size partitions as you see fit.
  20. 436 Chapter 14 Storage Management You can size extended partitions to fill any available unallocated space on a disk. Because an extended partition can contain multiple logical drives, each with their own file system, consider carefully how you might want to size logical drives before creating the extended partition. Additionally, if a drive already has an extended partition or is removable, you won’t be able to create an extended partition. Chapter 14 Figure 14-5 Size the partition appropriately. 3. If you are creating a primary partition, use the Assign Drive Letter Or Path page, as shown in Figure 14-6, to assign a drive letter or path. You can do one of the following: Assign a drive letter by choosing Assign The Following Drive Letter and then selecting an available drive letter in the selection list provided. Gener- ally, the drive letters E through Z are available for use (drive letters A and B are used with floppy/Zip drives, drive C is for the primary partition, and drive D is for the computer’s CD/DVD-ROM drive). Mount a path by choosing Mount In The Following Empty NTFS Folder and then typing the path to an existing folder. You can also click Browse to search for or create a folder. Use Do Not Assign A Drive Letter Or Drive Path To if you want to create the partition without assigning a drive letter or path.
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