A network of peers

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  • The term "peer-to-peer" has come to be applied to networks that expect end users to contribute their own files, computing time, or other resources to some shared project. Even more interesting than the systems' technical underpinnings are their socially disruptive potential: in various ways they return content, choice, and control to ordinary users.

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  • As in the first edition, I’ve tried to make this Encyclopedia a comprehensive source of informa- tion about matters relating to networking. I’ve also tried to present the information in a clear and useful manner. This book contains comprehensive, straightforward summaries of the major concepts, issues, and approaches related to networking. Networking is defined broadly to encompass configurations ranging from a couple of connected computers just a few feet apart to a network of several thousand machines (of all types and sizes) scattered around the world.

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  • An Introduction to Networking List the advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computing Distinguish between client/server and peer-to-peer networks List elements common to all client/server networks Describe several specific uses for a network Identify some of the certifications available to networking professionals Identify the kinds of nontechnical, or “soft,” skills that will help you succeed as a networking professional

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  • This book is published in print and online through the online OAPEN library (www.oapen.org). OAPEN (Open Access Publishing in European Networks) is a collaborative initiative to develop and implement a sustainable Open Access publication model for academic books in the Humanities and Social Sciences. The OAPEN Library aims to improve the visibility and usability of high quality academic research by aggregating peer reviewed Open Access publications from across Europe.

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  • This edited volume contains a selection of chapters that are an outgrowth of the European Conference on Mathematical and Theoretical Biology (ECMTB05, Dresden, Germany, July 2005). The peer-reviewed contributions show that mathematical and computational approaches are absolutely essential for solving central problems in the life sciences, ranging from the organizational level of individual cells to the dynamics of whole populations.

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  • Since the outbreak of peer-to-peer (P2P) networking with Napster during the late ’90s, P2P applications have multiplied, become sophisticated and emerged as a significant fraction of Internet traffic. At first, P2P traffic was easily recognizable since P2P protocols used specific application TCP or UDP port numbers. However, current P2P applications have the ability to use arbitrary ports to “camouflage” their existence. Thus only a portion of P2P traffic is clearly identifiable. As a result, estimates and statistics regarding P2P traffic are unreliable.

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  • As innovative ways are being developed to harvest the enormous potential of the Internet infrastructure, a new class of large-scale globally-distributed network services and applications such as distributed content hosting services, overlay network multicast [1][2], content addressable overlay networks [3][4], and peer-to-peer file sharing such as Napster and Gnutella have emerged. Because these systems have a lot of flexibility in choosing their communication paths, they can greatly benefit from intelligent path selection based on network performance.

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  • How can these differences be explained? Is it a matter of cultural factors operating in specific countries such as peer norms, parenting styles, familiarity with the internet, practices of regulation or other variables? Or, is it a matter of the design and management of the particular SNS that predominates in that country? In The Netherlands, for instance, Hyves is the main SNS but, also, Dutch peer culture (or parenting) may encourage young children to join in social networking.

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  • Upon completion of this lesson, the successful participant will be able to understanding the Host-to-Host Communications Model, understanding why a Layered Network Model, understanding the seven layers of the OSI Model,... Inviting you to refer.

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  • Goals of this chapter: List the advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computing, distinguish between client/server and peer-to-peer networks, list elements common to all client/server networks, describe several specific uses for a network,... Inviting you to refer.

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  • Module 9: Configuring IPsec. Internet Protocol security (IPsec) is a framework of open standards for protecting communications over IP networks through cryptographic security services. IPsec supports network-level peer authentication, data-origin authentication, data integrity, data confidentiality (encryption), and replay protection. The Microsoft IPsec implementation is based on standards that the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) IPsec working group developed. In this module, you will learn how to implement, configure, and troubleshoot IPsec.

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  • So you have worked on Cisco routers and switches for a while and now want to get your CCIE? There are several good reasons to do so. Cisco’s certification program allows network analysts and engineers to demonstrate competence in different areas and levels of internetworking. Cisco certification can help you land a job or increase your pay because clients, peers, and superiors recognize you as a networking expert. CCIE certification is regarded as the most difficult and rewarding of the internetworking industry.

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  • Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of communication devices or nodes that wish to communicate without any fixed infrastructure and pre-determined organization of available links. The nodes in MANET themselves are responsible for dynamically discovering other nodes to communicate. Although the ongoing trend is to adopt ad hoc networks for commercial uses due to their certain unique properties, the main challenge is the vulnerability to security attacks.

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  • This chapter describes how to log into the CSS and configure an IP address, subnet mask, and default route. Included in this chapter is a description of the system software. It also contains information on using the Offline Diagnostic Monitor (Offline DM) menu. Information in this chapter applies to all CSS models except where noted. CSS software is available in a Standard or Enhanced feature set.

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  • For example, in the case of a multinational corporation, it might be reason- able to assume a high degree of control and coordination in the administration of the cluster of subnets of the corporation’s intranet. The administrators of this intranet might very well be able to design and manage the whole network of event servers deployed on their subnets, and thus it might be a good idea to adopt a hierarchical architecture within the intranet. Of course, the intranet would connect to other networks outside of the influence of the administrators.

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  • This book is now in its fifth edition. Each edition has corresponded to a different phase in the way computer networks were used. When the first edition appeared in 1980, networks were an academic curiosity. When the second edition appeared in 1988, networks were used by universities and large businesses. When the third edition appeared in 1996, computer networks, especially the Internet, had become a daily reality for millions of people. By the fourth edition, in 2003, wireless networks and mobile computers had become commonplace for accessing the Web and the Internet.

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  • During the course of a typical day—if there is such a thing as a "typical" day—network consultants are bombarded with questions coming from all directions. These questions come from customers, peers, sales and marketing teams, network administrators, and so on, and the list seems neverending at times. Network consultants, designers, engineers, managers, and so on have developed an instinct over time and sometimes cringe or develop other nervous habits when the phrase, "You got a second?" is uttered.

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  • A friend has asked for help putting together a price list for a small LAN to be set up in a very small business. Rapid growth is not really a concern. The business has computers, but it has not networked the computers together. They are getting a DSL connection, so that they can access the Internet. They have been told that all they need is a small hub and connections to each computer to complete the project. Each machine is running a version of Windows that will work on a peer-to-peer network. The lab will use the Web site www.cdw.com, but any local source, catalog,...

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  • Scope of decision-making: Amajor factor is the scale at which query processing and viewmaterialization decisions are made. At one extreme, all queries in the entire system are optimized together, using complete knowledge of the available materialized views, resources, and network bandwidth constraints — this poses all of the challenges of multi-query optimization plus a number of additional difficulties. In particular, work must be distributed globally across many peers, and decisions must be made about when and where to materialize results for future use.

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  • Look at these four extracts from a computing textbook. Which criteria is the writer using to classify the networks he’s describing? Choose from the drop-down menu. 1 The most common examples of networks are LANs, PANs, MANs and WANs. 2 There are several languages that the computers on a network can use to communicate with each other. For example, the Internet uses TCP/IP. 3 A client-server network differs from a peer-to-peer network in several ways, the most important being that on a peer-to-peer network, there is no need for a separate computer to act as a server.

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