Actors and observers

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  • Existing models of plan inference (PI) in conversation have assumed that the agent whose plan is being inferred (the actor) and the agent drawing the inference (the observer) have identical beliefs about actions in the domain. I argue that this assumption often results in failure of both the PI process and the communicative process that PI is meant to support. In particular, it precludes the principled generation of appropriate responses to queries that arise from invalid plans. I describe a model of P1 that abandons this assumption. It rests on an analysis of plans as mental phenomena.

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  • A second way to define power is in terms of a relationship in which one actor is observed to attempt to influence another directly and succeeds. This is sometimes called “actualized” power. The attempt to influence results from differing preferences over outcomes, and the attempt is successful if the attempt of actor A to influence actor B results in an outcome preferred by A.

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  • “In striving for entertainment, our imagination must have neither limits nor bounds. It has always been a basic need in creative efforts. ‘Imagination,’ wrote Stanislavsky, ‘must be cultivated and developed; it must be alert, rich and active. An actor (animator) must learn to think on any theme. He must observe people (and animals) and their behavior—try to understand their mentality.’ “To one degree or another, people in our audience are aware of human and animal behavior. They may have seen, experienced or read about it.

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  • The selection must be announced at the latest on the day preceding the interview. The audit team may also arrange joint discussions for various actors within the institution concerning key topics in terms of quality management. The visit concludes with a meeting with the management, where the audit team has the opportunity to ask more specific questions about the institution’s quality system. At the end of the meeting, the audit team gives the institution preliminary feedback on the functioning of its quality system based on the observations made during the visit....

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  • In writing ths narrative, which relates to the decisive campaign which freed the Northern States from invasion, it may not be out of place to state what facilities I have had for observation in the fulfilment of so important a task. I can only say that I was, to a considerable extent, an actor in the scenes I describe, and knew the principal leaders on both sides, in consequence of my association with them at West Point, and, subsequently, in the regular army. Indeed, several of them, including Stonewall Jackson and A. P. Hill, were, prior to the war, officers in the regiment to which...

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  • Drawing from Goffman’s performance theory, there are three fundamental components to the passage of social information between individuals. When information is to be conveyed explicitly, it is given, but these messages are also impacted by the subtle, and perhaps unconscious messages that are given off by the actors, as well as the intention that the observer might infer (Goffman 1956: 2).

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