Adequate language

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  • The Secret Language of Feelings was written to provide information regarding the nature of feelings and emotions. It is not designed to be a complete course in counseling, psychotherapy or psychology, or to offer medical advice. It is not meant to encompass all of the information available or needed to do any kind of therapeutic work. No single book could adequately prepare anyone for the practice of therapy or counseling. This book was designed to help individuals wishing to help themselves.

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  • Computational linguistics is generally considered to be the branch of engineering that uses computers to do useful things with linguistic signals, but it can also be viewed as an extended test of computational theories of human cognition; it is this latter perspective that psychologists find most interesting. Language provides a critical test for the hypothesis that physical symbol systems are adequate to perform all human cognitive functions.

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  • This paper describes the components used in the design of the commercial X u x e n I I spelling checker/corrector for Basque. It is a new version of the Xuxen spelling corrector (Aduriz et al., 97) which uses lexical transducers to improve the process. A very important new feature is the use of user dictionaries whose entries can recognise both the original and inflected forms. In languages with a high level of inflection such as Basque spelling checking cannot be resolved without adequate treatment of words from a morphological standpoint.

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  • Results of computational complexity exist for a wide range of phrase structure-based grammar formalisms, while there is an apparent lack of such results for dependency-based formalisms. We here adapt a result on the complexity of ID/LP-grammars to the dependency framework. Contrary to previous studies on heavily restricted dependency grammars, we prove that recognition (and thus, parsing) of linguistically adequate dependency grammars is~A/T'-complete.

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  • In the field of knowledge based systems for natural language processing, one of the most challenging aims is to use parts of an existing knowledge base for different domains and/or different tasks. We support the point that this problem can only be solved by using adequate metainformation about the content and structuring principles of the representational systems concerned. One of the prerequisites in this respect is the transparency of modelling decisions.

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  • Current statistical speech translation approaches predominantly rely on just text transcripts and do not adequately utilize the rich contextual information such as conveyed through prosody and discourse function. In this paper, we explore the role of context characterized through dialog acts (DAs) in statistical translation. We demonstrate the integration of the dialog acts in a phrase-based statistical translation framework, employing 3 limited domain parallel corpora (Farsi-English, Japanese-English and Chinese-English).

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  • In BBN's natural language understanding and generation system (Janus), we have used a hybrid approach to representation, employing an intensional logic for the representation of the semantics of utterances and a taxonomic language with formal semantics for specification of descriptive constants and axioms relating them. Remarkably, 99.9% of 7,000 vocabulary items in our natural language applications could be adequately axiomatlzed in the taxonomic language.

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  • In natural language generation (NLG), a semantic representation of some k i n d - possibly enriched with pragmatic attributes - - is successively transformed into one or more linguistic utterances. No matter what particular architecture is chosen to organize this process, one of the crucial decisions to be made is lexicalization: selecting words that adequately express the content that is to be communicated and, if represented, the intentions and attitudes of the speaker.

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  • Idiomatic expressions have long played an important role in the English language. In fact, the use of idioms is so widespread that an understanding of these expressions is essential to successful communication, whether in listening, speaking, reading, or writing. The student may learn grammar and, with time, acquire adequate vocabulary, but without a working knowledge of such idioms as above all, to get along, on the whole, to look up, etc., even the best student's speech will remain awkward and ordinary.

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  • Course Setup Read this section before you set up the instructor and student workstations and servers. Classroom setup can take several hours. Allow adequate time to set up the hardware and software, and to test the setup. As part of your testing, complete the exercises to ensure that students can complete the exercises without unexpected problems.

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  • Ultimately the aim would be for adequate long term funding being available to refugee and asylum seekers self-help, community and voluntary sector organisations in order for them to deliver local services to local communities. Treatment and service options would therefore be more easily controlled and chosen in accordance with the context of refugee and asylum seekers lives and therefore the actual needs and choices of the individual.

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  • Although adequate models of human language for syntactic analysis and semantic interpretation are of at least contextfree complexity, for applications such as speech processing in which speed is important finite-state models are often preferred. These requirements may be reconciled by using the more complex grammar to automatically derive a finite-state approximation which can then be used as a filter to guide speech recognition or to reject many hypotheses at an early stage of processing.

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  • Many soils which have received manure or synthetic applications over a number of years contain relatively high levels of soil phosphorus. In soils which have not been so fertilized, phosphorus levels may be low. Rock powders suc as colloidal phosphate and rock phosphate can be applied to build up the phosphorus-supplying power of a soil over time. However, these products become available to plants very slowly, and cannot be relied upon to supply adequate phosphorus to a crop the year of application when soil level of phosphorus are low.

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  • A compositional account of the semantics of German prefix verbs in HPSG is outlined. We consider only those verbs that are formed by productive synchronic rules. Rules are fully productive if they apply to all base verbs which satisfy a common description. Prefixes can be polysemous and have separate, highly underspecified lexical entries. Adequate bases are determined via selection restrictions.

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  • Israel Moiseevich Gelfand is one of the greatest mathematicians of the 20th century. His insights and ideas have helped to develop new areas in mathematics and to reshape many classical ones. The influence of Gelfand can be found everywhere in mathematics and mathematical physics from functional analysis to geometry, algebra, and number theory. His seminar (one of the most influential in the history of mathematics) helped to create a very diverse and productive Gelfand school; indeed, many outstanding mathematicians proudly call themselves Gelfand disciples....

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  • Existing health information systems and registries should be strengthened to ensure effective data collection. Health information systems for cervical cancer should be able to monitor coverage of screening and adequate treatment using WHO indicators, and strengthen cancer registries to measure programme impact. Health information systems should also create or strengthen databases to track women with abnormal test results in need of treatment and those receiving care.

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  • The Family Liaison Office (FLO) is well aware that many family members continue to be concerned about their careers. The frequent moves, the different languages and cultures encountered and the difficulty in landing positions around the world, often negatively impact family members’ career development. With this in mind, FLO continues to seek employment opportunities for family members. One area that many of you are finding attractive is starting and operating your own home-based business.

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  • An important goal of ntodent linguistic theory is to characterize as narrowly as possible the class of natural !anguaooes. An adequate linguistic theory should be broad enough to cover observed variation iu human languages, and yet narrow enough to account for what might be dubbed "cognitive demands" -- among these, perhaps, the demands of lcarnability and pars,ability. If cognitive demands are to carry any real theoretical weight, then presumably a language may be a (theoretically) pos~ible human language, and yet be "inaccessible" because it is not leanmble or pa~able. ...

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  • We investigate a series of graph-theoretic constraints on non-projective dependency parsing and their effect on expressivity, i.e. whether they allow naturally occurring syntactic constructions to be adequately represented, and efficiency, i.e. whether they reduce the search space for the parser. In particular, we define a new measure for the degree of non-projectivity in an acyclic dependency graph obeying the single-head constraint. The constraints are evaluated experimentally using data from the Prague Dependency Treebank and the Danish Dependency Treebank. ...

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  • PCFGs can be accurate, they suffer from vocabulary coverage problems: treebanks are small and lexicons induced from them are limited. The reason for this treebank-centric view in PCFG learning is 3-fold: the English treebank is fairly large and English morphology is fairly simple, so that in English, the treebank does provide mostly adequate lexical coverage1 ; Lexicons enumerate analyses, but don’t provide probabilities for them; and, most importantly, the treebank and the external lexicon are likely to follow different annotation schemas, reflecting different linguistic perspectives.

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