Affinity mediator

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  • Synthetic polymers fulfill many functions in biotechnology and medicine. In cell culture technology and tissue engineering they provide the surfaces to which cells may attach. Cross-linked polymer networks are used for drug delivery and cell encapsulation. Polymer-based porous membranes can be used to shield implanted cells from the immune system of the host, while allowing for the exchange of nutrients and metabolic waste products thus keeping the cells alive and functioning.

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  • Mast cells express the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FceRI) and are key players in type I hypersensitivity reactions. They are critically involved in the development of allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and systemic anaphy-laxis, however, they also regulate normal physiological processes that link innate and adaptive immune responses.

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  • RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) requires a set of general transcription factors )TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF and TFIIH)to initiate transcription from a gene promoterin vitro. General transcription factors have been isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae,rat, human and Drosophila,and their corresponding cDNAs have been cloned. In this report, we describe a reconstitutedin vitro transcription system that consists of the following prepara-tions of factors from the yeastSchizosaccharomyces pombe: affinity-purified RNAPII, TFIIH, and recombinant TBP, TFIIB, TFIIE and TFIIF. ...

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  • Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are a structurally related but function-ally diverse family of ubiquitous proteins. We previously described Ixodes ricinus immunosuppressor (Iris) as a serpin from the saliva of the tickI. ricinusdisplaying high affinity for human leukocyte elastase.

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  • Thrombin generation increases in several pathological conditions, including cancer, thromboembolism, diabetes and myeloproliferative syndromes. During tumor development, thrombin levels increase along with several other molecules, including cytokines and angiogenic factors. Under such conditions, it is reasonable to predict that thrombin may recognize new low-affinity substrates that usually are not recognized under low-expression levels conditions.

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  • Folate is an essential vitamin involved in a number of biological processes. High affinity folate binding proteins (FBPs) exist both as glycosylphospha-tidylinositol-linked, membrane associated folate binding proteins and as soluble FBPs in plasma and some secretory fluids such as milk, saliva and semen. The function and significance of FBPs are unresolved, however, it has been suggested that they may facilitate folate uptake, e.g. during suck-ling.

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  • Mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (mrps) of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been extensively characterized genetically and biochemically. However, the list of thegenes encoding individualmrps is still not complete and quite a fewof the mrps are only predicted from their similarity to bacterial ribosomal proteins. We have con-structed a yeast strain in which one of the small subunit proteins, termed Mrp4, was tagged with S-peptide and used for affinity purification of mitochondrial ribosome. ...

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  • In Bacteria and Archaea, high-affinity potassium uptake is mediated by the ATP-driven KdpFABC complex. On the basis of the biochemical properties of the ATP-hydrolyzing subunit KdpB, the transport complex is classified as type IA P-type ATPase.

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  • Thrombopoietin is the primary regulator of platelet production. We exploi-ted two naturally occurring miniproteins of the inhibitor cystine knot fam-ily as stable and rigid scaffolds for the incorporation of peptide sequences that have been shown to act as high-affinity thrombopoietin antagonists. Several miniproteins that antagonistically block thrombopoietin-mediated receptor activation were identified using a microscale reporter assay.

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  • The growth factor pleiotrophin (PTN) has been reported to bind heparan sulfate and nucleolin, two components of the cell surface implicated in the attachment of HIV-1 particles to cells. Here we show that PTN inhibits HIV-1 infection by its capacity to inhibit HIV-1 particle attachment to the surface of permissive cells. The b-sheet domains of PTN appear to be implicated in this inhibitory effect on the HIV infection, in particular the domain containing amino acids 60–110. PTN binding to the cell surface is mediated by high and low affinity binding sites....

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  • The mannose 6-phosphate⁄insulin-like growth factor II receptor has diverse ligand-binding properties contributing to its roles in lysosome biogenesis and growth suppression. Optimal receptor binding and internalization of mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P)-bearing ligands requires a dimeric struc-ture leading to bivalent high-affinity binding, presumably mediated by cooperation between sites on both subunits.

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