African perspective

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  • Taxation in Comparative and Historical Perspective The New Fiscal Sociology: Taxation in Comparative and Historical Perspective demon- strates that the study of taxation can illuminate fundamental dynamics of modern societies. The fourteen chapters in this collection offer a state-of-the-art survey of the new fiscal sociology that is emerging at the intersection of sociology, history, political science, and law. The contributors include some of the foremost comparative historical scholars in these disciplines and others.

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  • In countries hard-hit by HIV/AIDS, school availability has fallen precipitously. Substantial numbers of teachers are ill, dying or caring for family members. In the late 1990s, for instance, more than 100 schools were forced to close in the Central African Republic because of AIDS-related deaths. In 2000, AIDS was reported to be responsible for 85 per cent of the 300 teacher deaths there.4 The quality of education has also dropped in many regions. The illness and death of qualified personnel threaten management of the education system.

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  • This report marks the end of a unique, long-term and extensive teaching and learning intervention programme, the Quality Learning Project (QLP). In concluding the evaluation activities of the QLP, a reflection on the evaluation processes and findings is desirable. For this reason, some of the most important functions and roles of the QLP and its evaluation are placed in perspective. In doing so, the report emphasises the crucial nature and function of evaluation for teaching and learning, more so in view of the transformation context of the South African education system....

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  • Many securities are financial instruments under the definitions established in Section 386 of the CICA Handbook.A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to both a finan cial asset of one party and a financial liability or equity instrument of another party. In th context of intercorporate investments, financial assets are defined as any contractual righ to receive cash or another financial asset from another company. Bonds and share invest ment meet this definition.

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  • As the significance of business improvement districts (BIDs) has grown in recent years in the governance of urban and metropolitan areas, not only in North America but also in a variety of European, Asian, and African countries, academic interest in them followed. BIDs are self-assessment districts that are initiated and governed by property or businessowners and authorized by state or local governments to operate in designated urban and suburban geographic areas.

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  • In recognition of the importance of establishing gender equality around the world, the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) was established as a separate fund within the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) in 1984. At that time, the General Assembly instructed it to “ensure women’s involvement with mainstream activities.”3 The Platform of Action resulting from the 1995 Beijing World Conference on Women expanded this concept, calling it “gender mainstreaming”—i.e.

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  • This report does not propose to enter the discussions on financing and investment levels that will be needed to support green growth such as is done by the IEA (2010a) for the energy sector, but rather will look at where required flows may come from and how financial instruments such as green bonds might be used to shift flows to support green growth. However, for illustrative purposes it is useful to examine the ranges of estimates that are quoted.

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  • The second part of the book is focused on developments in the global insurance market. It essentially considers global market trends in the insurance sector in terms of the challenges posed by market trends, regulatory convergence and changes in the technological and corporate landscape. It benefits from submissions made by John Cooke, Chairman of the Financial Leaders Working Group, Chris Gentle Global Director (Research), Financial Services, Deloitte & Touche, Patrizia Baur of Swiss Re and J.F. Outreville of UNCTAD.

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  • Broadly defined, an audit is a systematic review of operations and practices to ensure that relevant requirements are met.Traditionally, the term audit is associated with principles of accounting. Because of this,many people perceive a safety audit as an Internal Revenue Service (IRS) procedure or a financial accounting procedure. Indeed, the safety audit may apply similar methodolo- gies used in financial audits to mitigate safety risks within any facility or opera- tion. A sound business enterprise must check its safety practices as carefully as its accounting records.

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  • Most markets have preciously few advertising and promotion dollars and therefore need to seek the biggest bang for their bucks. Even if your market is blessed with a large ad budget, you will want to spend it effectively. The following general principles of marketing can be helpful in guiding your market in getting the most from your money. 80/20 rule Keep the 80/20 rule in mind: 80% of your business comes from 20% of your customers. (Koch, 1998).

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  • The first part, entitled ‘The replacement of painting by cinema’, shows how the comparison between painting and cinema reexamines crucial questions of aesthetics such as the pregnant instant and the crisis of the frame. The second part, ‘A saturation of glorious signs’ begins by questioning the sublime side of Antonioni’s cinema before operating a turnaround showing that cinema, at its limit, rediscovers the essence of painting: acheiropoietos images in Godard’s cinema, icons for Tarkovski. The sublation becomes that of cinema by itself. ...

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  • Humoral immunity is so named because it involves substances found in the humours, or body fluids. It is mediated by antibodies produced by cells of the B lymphocyte lineage. B cells, activated by the adaptive immune responses, transform into plasma cells which secrete antibodies. This process is aided by CD4+ T-helper 2 cells, which provide active co-stimulation. The secreted antibodies bind to antigens present on the surfaces of invading microbes, which marks them for subsequent destruction (Pier et al., 2004).

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  • The presence of amnesia (which in psychoanalytic theories is posited to have the role of covering the unfortunate past) might, however, pose a significant challenge to clinicians trying to identify the precipitating stressful events. Furthermore some cases of dissociative (psychogenic) amnesia did not occur as a result of an objective major psychological stressor, but were recorded after a seemingly objective minor stress (Staniloiu et al., 2009).

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  • More recently the results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) (Thompson et al. 2003) demonstrated that there is no PSA threshold below which one can confidently exclude a diagnosis of prostate cancer. The PCPT trial protocol required “normal” men with very low levels of PSA to be biopsied at the end of the trial and it was observed that 39.2% of men with a PSA 2.1-3.0 ng/mL, 27.7% of men with a PSA 1.1-2.0 ng/mL, and 16.3% of men with a PSA

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  • Traditional Chinese medicine, including herbal medicine and acupuncture, as one of the most important parts in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Recent research showed that complementary and alternative medicine could contribute to primary health care. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has evolved a system that aims to cure illness by penetrating the skin at specific points. This system is called acupuncture, derived from the Latin words "acus" and "punctura" meaning "needle" and "pricked", respectively....

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  • With increasing global temperatures and the impact of climate change, it is accepted that there needs to be a reduction in global GHGEs which are contributing to climate change. As part of the UK Climate Change Act 2008 ( targets were set to cut the total annual GHGEs in the UK by at least 80% by 2050, with an interim target of a reduction of 34% by 2020 (based on the 1990 levels). The food system is a major contributor to GHGEs, with the food chain estimated to account for approximately a fifth of total GHGEs in the UK, the...

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  • Once the law goes into effect, individuals who do not have minimal essential coverage will be required to pay a tax penalty. e penalty will be waived if the cost of coverage exceeds 8 percent of family income, if an individual is uninsured for fewer than three months, if an individual’s income is below the federal tax-filing threshold, or if the individual meets other criteria for exemption described in the ACA. New employerresponsibility provisions will apply to firms with 50 or more full-time equivalent employees.

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  • To provide a simple projection of COPD mortality from SFU, consider a scenario in which age-specific COPD death rates (per 1000 population in age group) are constant over time. 6 Using World Bank country demographic projections, we can apply the relative risks of COPD from SFU in Desai et al (2004) to estimate COPD mortality by SFU prevalence rates in 50 years from now. The results are presented for China, India, Nigeria and Tanzania in tables 1.2. COPD mortality from SFU would be higher in 2055 than today in all four countries at SFU prevalence rates ...

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  • These three types of characteristics are summarised in Table 1, which gives a stylised presentation of di erences with respect to pre-costs, post-costs, which type of consumers buying behaviour the evaluation a ect, and nally examples of the di erent types of characteristics. An example of a search characteristic could be visible fat of a chop of pork; an example of an experience characteristic is the taste of pork under di erent preparations; and animal welfare of the production system that delivers pork exemplify a credence characteristic.

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  • We have combined several types of data for this analysis. Our main data contains automobile transactions from a sample of 15-20% of all dealerships in the U.S. from September 1, 1999 to June 30, 2008. The data were collected by a major market research rm, and include every new car and used car transaction within the time period for the dealers in the sample.

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