Antigen and antibody

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  • Malaria is a disease of human which causes high morbidity and mortality. Malaria is one of the major public health challenges and syndromic approach is unreliable because of non-specific and overlapping symptoms with other febrile diseases. Various diagnostic techniques available include: Peripheral blood film examination, rapid diagnostic tests for antigen and one step pf/pv antibody detection. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Department of Microbiology, Dhiraj General Hospital, Dist., Vadodara.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 of the document USMLE road map - Immunology presents the following contents: Innate immunity, adaptive immunity, antigens and antibodies, immunoglobulin gene expression, antigen recognition by antibody, T cell recognition of and response to antigen, major histocompatibility complex, complement.

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  • Dengue is a mosquito borne viral disease (Priyadarshini et al., 2016). It belongs to the family of Flavivirus. It is transmitted mainly by the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito. Outbreaks are due to the four serotypes DEN1, DEN2, DEN3, DEN4. Increasing incidence and repeated outbreaks turns this disease as a serious public health problem (Barrera et al., 2002). Urbanization, improper water management and the vector population are the main causes for the spread of the disease. Dengue is a leading causes of hospitalization and death among children (Mistry et al., 2013).

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  • Blood transfusion is a field where there has been, and continue to be, significant advances in science, technology and most particularly governance. The aim of this book is to provide students of allied medical sciences, medicine and transfusion practitioners with a comprehensive overview of both the scientific and managerial aspects of blood transfusion. The book is intended to equip biomedical, clinical and allied medical professionals with practical tools to allow for an informed practice in the field of blood transfusion management....

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 107. Transfusion Biology and Therapy Blood Group Antigens and Antibodies The study of red blood cell (RBC) antigens and antibodies forms the foundation of transfusion medicine. Serologic studies initially characterized these antigens, but now the molecular composition and structure of many are known. Antigens, either carbohydrate or protein, are assigned to a blood group system based on the structure and similarity of the determinant epitopes.

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  • The term viral hepatitis refers to primary infection of liver by any one of the heterogeneous group of hepatitis virus which currently consists of types A, B, C, D, E and G Hepatitis virus infection occurs as an acute illness. HBsAg (Hepatitis B surface antigen) is the most common marker of infection, which is present in high concentrations in early acute infections and is continued to be produced in chronic disease. The present study is undertaken because there is paucity of data indicating prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C among pre-operative patients admitted in our hospital.

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  • As with the first edition, the primary purpose of this book is to describe human blood group antigens and their inheritance, the antibodies that define them, the structure and functions of the red cell membrane macromolecules that carry them, and the genes that encode them or control their biosynthesis. In addition, this book provides information on the clinical relevance of blood groups and on the importance of blood group antibodies in transfusion medicine in particular.

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  • The study of red blood cell (RBC) antigens and antibodies forms the foundation of transfusion medicine. Serologic studies initially characterized these antigens, but now the molecular composition and structure of many are known. Antigens, either carbohydrate or protein, are assigned to a blood group system based on the structure and similarity of the determinant epitopes. Other cellular blood elements and plasma proteins are also antigenic and can result in alloimmunization, the production of antibodies directed against the blood group antigens of another individual.

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  • Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus share common modes of transmission i.e. by blood and blood products mainly and also noticed in drug addicts. Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus have been recognized as a major pathogen causing significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world including India. The most important markers for HBV and HCV infection are HBsAg and Anti HCV antibodies respectively. Detection of infection markers for these agents is a major challenge in a resource poor setting.

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  • The ultimate goal of this paper is to develop derivatives of ferroceneservingas an electrochemical probe that would enhance the performance of immunosensor.An immunosensor based on polypyrrole-streptavidin layer as platform for immobilization of biotinylatedferrocene and antibodies was developed. The measurement of redox signal of ferrocene was analyzed by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method and underlined a variation of redox properties upon the antigen interaction.

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  • The properties of recombinant VP6 protein were characterized by Western blot and ELISA methods. Pure recombinant VP6 protein was used as an antigen to inject into the rabbits. The recombinant VP6 protein was highly immunogenic in rabbits. Anti-VP6 antibodies were purified from the rabbit serum using the Protein A affinity chromatography.

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  • Dengue has become a major international public health problem due to human morbidity and mortality it causes. Dengue NS1 antigen has been detected in the serum of DEN virus infected patients as early as one day of onset of symptoms. In this study the potential use of dengue NS1 antigen and in early dengue diagnosis has been analysed. The study group consists of all febrile patients with fever of duration less than 5 days attending the medical OPD for a period of one year from July 2013. The blood sample was subjected to an immunochromatographic test for NS1 antigen, IgM and IgG antibodies.

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  • Multicellular organisms have evolved systems/mechanisms to detect various forms of danger, including attack by microbial pathogens and a variety of pests, as well as tissue and cellular damage. Detection via cell-surface receptors activates an ancient and evolutionarily conserved innate immune system.

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  • Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in the United States. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA), often found at high levels in the serum of PCa patients, has been used as a marker for PCa detection and as a target of immunotherapy.

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  • Twenty-five years ago, Georges Köhler and César Milstein invented a means of cloning individual antibodies, thus opening up the way for tremendous advances in the fields of cell biology and clinical diagnostics (1). However, in spite of their early promise, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were largely unsuccessful as therapeutic reagents resulting from insufficient activation of human effector functions and immune reactions against proteins of murine origin.

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  • Immune-Mediated Reactions Acute Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions Immune-mediated hemolysis occurs when the recipient has preformed antibodies that lyse donor erythrocytes. The ABO isoagglutinins are responsible for the majority of these reactions, although alloantibodies directed against other RBC antigens, i.e., Rh, Kell, and Duffy, may result in hemolysis. Acute hemolytic reactions may present with hypotension, tachypnea, tachycardia, fever, chills, hemoglobinemia, hemoglobinuria, chest and/or flank pain, and discomfort at the infusion site.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 116. Immunization Principles and Vaccine Use Principles of Immunization The immune system, composed of a variety of cell types and soluble factors, is geared toward the recognition of and response to "foreign" substances termed antigens. Vaccines convey antigens from living or killed microorganisms (or protein or carbohydrate molecules derived from these antigens) to elicit immune responses that are generally protective but can occasionally backfire and cause harm to the recipient.

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  • Immunophenotype and Relevance to the WHO Classification The immunophenotype of human leukemia cells can be studied by multiparameter flow cytometry after the cells are labeled with monoclonal antibodies to cell-surface antigens. This can be important for separating AML from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and identifying some types of AML. For example, AML that is minimally differentiated (immature morphology and no lineage-specific cytochemical reactions) is diagnosed by flow-cytometric demonstration of the myeloid-specific antigens cluster designation (CD) 13 or 33.

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  • The major pathogenic mechanism of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is an in situ immune complex formation due to deposition of streptococcal nephritogenic antigens, such as nephritis-associated plasmin receptor (NAPlr) and Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPE B). Both are capable of activating the alternate pathway of the complement cascade and enhance the expression of adhesion molecules. SPE B also stimulates the production of chemotactic cytokines. NAPlr was isolated from group A streptococcus and was shown to bind plasmin(ogen).

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  • Hybridomas are cells that have been engineered to produce a desired antibody in large amounts. To produce monoclonal antibodies, Bcells are removed from the spleen of an animal that has been challenged with the relevant antigen. These B-cells are then fused with myeloma tumor cells that can grow indefinitely in culture (myeloma is a B-cell cancer). This fusion is performed by making the cell membranes more permeable. The fused hybrid cells (called hybridomas), being cancer cells, will multiply rapidly and indefinitely and will produce large amounts of the desired antibodies.

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