Assessing likelihood

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  • Acute Care Settings Acute care settings, anorexia, various diseases, test procedures, and medications can compromise dietary intake. Under such circumstances, the goal is to identify and avoid inadequate intake and ensure appropriate alimentation. Dietary assessment focuses on what patients are currently eating, whether they are able and willing to eat, and whether they experience any problems with eating. Dietary intake assessment is based on information from observed intakes; medical record; history; clinical examination; and anthropometric, biochemical, and functional status.

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  • The Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Manpower and Reserve Affairs raised a concern that the Army’s use of contractors on the battlefield did not stem from any clearly articulated policy and could well be inappropriate. It asked RAND Arroyo Center to identify the policies and processes that appeared to be driving Army decisions to use contractors on the battlefield and offer ways to increase the likelihood that these policies and processes would yield outcomes consistent with the Army’s high-level goals. Arroyo’s analysis proceeded along two parallel tracks.

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  • companion document, entitled Guidance on Safety Performance Indicators (2003), will be published immediately following the 2nd edition of the Guiding Principles. The Guidance on SPI is designed to assist relevant stakeholders to establish programmes for assessing their own performance related to the prevention of, preparedness for, and response to chemical accidents.

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  • Tax compliance researchers begin with the supposition that people compare the marginal benefit of noncompliance (reduced tax payments, for example) with the expected marginal costs, which account for both the likelihood of punishment and its severity. That perspective provides an approach for evaluating the effective penalties uninsured people could anticipate under an individual health mandate.

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  • Since this book was first published in 1998, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the morphology of the skin and the properties that govern the transport of molecules into and across the three major strata. The multitude of data that has been generated has allowed the development of predictive models for both the rate and extent of dermal absorption and has increased our ability to predict the likelihood of local toxic events subsequent to solute penetration and permeation.

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  • This study does not examine the relationship between credit scores and the likelihood of insurance losses. Regulators and consumer groups have expressed growing concern that use of credit scores may restrict the availability of insurance products in predominantly minority and low income communities, markets that already show signs of significant affordability and access problems (Kabler, 2004).

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  • Tham khảo sách 'diseases and disorders: autism', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • To put the odds ratios of these genetic markers in context, let’s consider the effect size of the above mentioned environmental risk factors that physicians currently use to assess patients’ likelihood of myocardial infarction. The effect size of the genetic markers 9p21 and MTHFD1L equals or surpasses the effect size of most of the currently recognized medical risk factors -- an insight which many physicians may find illuminating.

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  • We first examine whether the likelihood of acquisition affects the firm’s decision to split, after controlling for price run-ups and other factors that may influence a firm’s stock-split decision. Acquiring firms and their industry-size-price matching firms are pooled for all regressions. 9 We run probit regressions of the split dummy variable (equals one if there is a stock split from month −6tomonth −1, and zero otherwise) on the M&A dummy variable (equals one if the firm is an acquirer, and zero otherwise) and other control variables.

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  • Simple, nonmedical terms should be used in explanations to the patient. Health care workers should be specific about the behaviors expected from the patient. For example, it is much more helpful to say, “This pill will help you get better,” than to say, “This drug, isoniazid, is a bactericidal agent that is highly active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.” Using words that are familiar to patients can make the information relevant to them, therefore increasing the likelihood that the patient will comply with the prescribed treatment regimen. ...

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  • Distinguishing Cardiogenic from Noncardiogenic Pulmonary Edema The history is essential for assessing the likelihood of underlying cardiac disease as well as for identification of one of the conditions associated with noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. The physical examination in cardiogenic pulmonary edema is notable for evidence of increased intracardiac pressures (S3 gallop, elevated jugular venous pulse, peripheral edema), and rales and/or wheezes on auscultation of the chest.

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  • With a solid understanding of the company, its objectives and inherent risks, the auditor must consider the possible impact of the various risks on the achievement of business objectives and the likelihood of their occurrence. By considering both the impact of key risks and the likelihood of occurrence, a risk profile of the organisation can be developed. The risk profile is presented to management and the audit committee using a colour-coded heat map that identifies high, moderate and low risk areas.

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  • Unemployment is still over 8 percent as small-business hiring remains stagnant and housing foreclosures remain at historically high levels. Consumer confidence continues to lag pre-recession levels and businesses are still reluctant to hire or invest even as sales start to im- prove. And with the added pressure of high gas prices, similar to price increases last seen in 2008, the likelihood of rapid economic improve- ments is remote. While the economy is over two years into its recov- ery, progress is painfully slow as economic headwinds and uncertainty remain.

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  • Approach to the Patient: Anemia The evaluation of the patient with anemia requires a careful history and physical examination. Nutritional history related to drugs or alcohol intake and family history of anemia should always be assessed. Certain geographic backgrounds and ethnic origins are associated with an increased likelihood of an inherited disorder of the hemoglobin molecule or intermediary metabolism.

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  • Recently, much academic and regulatory interest has been concentrated on the problem of high-yield, junk bond default. Arguably, corporate bonds have defaulted for many reasons, including factors specific to the individual issuing firm, variables corresponding to the industry in which it operates, and macroeconomic forces affecting the business cycle. Individual factors include the firm's leverage, industry type, agency problem, riskiness of the investment decisions, managerial integrity, efficiency and investment savvy together with institutional operating costs.

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  • As baseline knowledge of the effectiveness of internal controls develops, the periodic risk assessment may consider the reliability and effectiveness of these controls in mitigating the significance and/or likelihood of a risk occurrence. Based on this knowledge, various risks may be reclassified due to improved knowledge of the system of internal control. However, even in areas where controls are thought to be effective, internal audit must incorporate the periodic testing of key controls to ensure they continue to help mitigate critical risks....

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  • Risk assessment is the first process in the risk management methodology. Organizations use risk assessment to determine the extent of the potential threat and the risk associated with an IT system throughout its SDLC. The output of this process helps to identify appropriate controls for reducing or eliminating risk during the risk mitigation process, as discussed in Section 4. Risk is a function of the likelihood of a given threat-source’s exercising a particular potential vulnerability, and the resulting impact of that adverse event on the organization.

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  • Trust is complicated by the lack of consistent communication techniques and expectations. As Saville-Troike (1982) noted in reference to physical interactions, differing notions of communicative competence create misunderstandings; this also applies online, although the likelihood of differing communicative expectations is greater. Messages are often misinterpreted, resulting in flame wars or otherwise unnecessary arguments. Yet, assessing a situation for communicative norms requires the ability to determine interpersonal context; online, other people are difficult to see.

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  • Even in a massive corpus such as the Web, a substantial fraction of extractions appear infrequently. This paper shows how to assess the correctness of sparse extractions by utilizing unsupervised language models. The R EALM system, which combines HMMbased and n-gram-based language models, ranks candidate extractions by the likelihood that they are correct. Our experiments show that R EALM reduces extraction error by 39%, on average, when compared with previous work.

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