Bacterial pneumonia

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Bench-to-bedside review: Therapeutic options and issues in the management of ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Bench-to-bedside review: Bacterial pneumonia with influenza - pathogenesis and clinical implications...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Influenza and bacterial pneumonia – constant companions...

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  • Neonatal sepsis still remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn, particularly in preterm, low birth weight infants. Despite advances in neonatal care, overall case-fatality rates from sepsis may be as high as 50%. Clinical signs of bacterial infection are vague and non-specific, and up to now there exists no easily available, reliable marker of infection despite a large bulk of studies focussing on inflammatory indices in neonatology. Every neonatologist is faced with the uncertainty of under- or over- diagnosing bacterial infection.

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  • In 2002, an estimated 250,000 healthcare-associated pneumonias developed in U.S. hospitals and 36,000 of these were associated with deaths.1 Patients with mechanically-assisted ventilation have a high risk of developing healthcare-associated pneumonia. For the year 2011, NHSN facilities reported more than 3,525 VAPs and the incidence for various types of hospital units ranged from 0.0-4.9 per 1,000 ventilator days.2 Prevention and control of healthcare-associated pneumonia is discussed in the CDC/HICPAC document, Guidelines for Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia, 20033.

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  • Duration of Therapy and Treatment Failure Until recently, there was little incentive to establish the most appropriate duration of treatment; patients were instructed to take a 7- or 10-day course of treatment for most common infections. A number of recent investigations have evaluated shorter durations of therapy, especially in patients with communityacquired pneumonia. Table 127-10 lists common bacterial infections for which treatment duration guidelines have been established or for which there is sufficient clinical experience to establish treatment durations.

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  • Tuberculosis as a primary cause of respiratory failure is an uncommon occurrence1 with an incidence of 1.5% in patients hospitalized with pulmonary TB2. Patients with miliary or disseminated disease are especially prone to develop respiratory failure. Tuberculous Pneumonia has rarely been identified as a cause of ARF3-4. Acute tuberculous pneumonia presents as parenchymal consolidation with or without endobronchial spread mimicking bacterial pneumonia.

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  • Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of hospital admission and the most important infectious cause of death [1]. A rapid diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment are essential to reduce the morbidity and mortality from CAP. In countries with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a frequent cause of CAP [2-4], and the differential diagnosis of TB from common bacterial pneumonia is difficult.

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  • Nontypable H. influenzae Nontypable H. influenzae is a common cause of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in adults. Nontypable H. influenzae pneumonia is especially common among patients with COPD or AIDS. The clinical features of H. influenzae pneumonia are similar to those of other types of bacterial pneumonia (including pneumococcal pneumonia). Patients present with fever, cough, and purulent sputum, usually of several days' duration. Chest radiography reveals alveolar infiltrates in a patchy or lobar distribution.

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  • Since its founding,ANAC has shown a singular commitment to improving the lives of those affected by HIV/AIDS. Nowhere is this commitment more fully articulated than in ANAC’s Core Curriculum for HIV/AIDS Nursing. Drawing from the expertise of frontline clinicians and scholars, the first two editions of the Core Curriculum provided nurses with the evidence-based knowledge to provide quality care to the diverse groups that comprise the HIV/AIDS population. In this third edition, we have endeavored to uphold the standard of excellence set by the editors of the first two editions.

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  • Brain Masses Mass lesions of the brain most often present as headache with or without fever or neurologic abnormalities. Infections associated with mass lesions may be caused by bacteria (particularly Nocardia), fungi (particularly Cryptococcus or Aspergillus), or parasites (Toxoplasma). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)–associated lymphoproliferative disease may also present as single or multiple mass lesions of the brain. A biopsy may be required for a definitive diagnosis. Pulmonary Infections Pneumonia (Chap.

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  • HPr kinase/phosphorylase (HPrK/P) is the key regulator of carbon metabolism in many Gram-positive bacteria. It phosphorylates/dephosphorylates the HPr protein of the bacterial phosphotransferase system on a regulatory serine residue in response to the nutrient status of the cell. In Mycoplasma pneumoniae,HPrK/P is one of the very few regulatory proteins encoded in the genome.

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  • Era is a highly conserved GTPase essential for bacterial growth. The N-terminal part of Era contains a conserved GTPase domain, whereas the C-terminal part of the protein contains anRNA- andmembrane-binding domain, theKH domain. To investigate whether the binding of Era to 16S rRNA and membrane requires its GTPase activity and whether the GTPase domain is essential for these acti-vities, the N- and C-terminal parts of the Streptococ-cus pneumoniaeEra –Era-N(aminoacids 1–185) andEra-C (amino acids 141–299), respectively – were expressed and purified. ...

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  • Although the annotation of the complete genome sequence ofMycoplasma pneumoniaedid not reveal a bacterial type I signal peptidase (SPase I) we showed experimentally that such an activity must exist in this bacterium, by determining the N-terminus of the N-terminal gene product P40 of MPN142, formerly called ORF6 gene. Combining mass spectrometry with a method for sulfonating specifically the free amino terminal group of proteins, the cleavage site for a typical signal peptide was located between amino acids 25 and 26 of the P40 precursor protein. ...

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  • hydrothermal vents, 1:282–283 methane oxidizing and producing bacteria, 2:378–379 photosynthetic microorganisms, 2:437 sulfur cycle, 2:536 Winogradsky column, 2:601 Chemotaxis, 1:47 See also Bacterial movement Chemotherapy, 1:116–117, 2:416 Chermann, Jean-Claude, 2:400 Chiasmata, 1:105 Chickenpox, 2:572–573, 2:573 Childbed fever, 2:535 Chitin, 1:117–118, 1:232 Chlamydia infection, 2:512 eye infections, 1:213 pneumonia, 1:118 Chlamydia pneumoniae, 1:118 Chlamydia psittaci, 1:118, 2:445 Chlamydia trachomatis, 1:118, 1:123 Chlamydial pneumonia, 1:118 Chlamydomonas, 2:460 Chlamydomona...

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  • Colin Munro MacLeod is recognized as one of the founders of molecular biology for his research concerning the role of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in bacteria. Along with his colleagues Oswald Avery and Maclyn McCarty, MacLeod conducted experiments on bacterial transformation which indicated that DNA was the active agent in the genetic transformation of bacterial cells. His earlier research focused on the causes of pneumonia and the development of serums to treat it.

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  • Kanagarajan et al. Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters 2011, 1:8 http://www.orgmedchemlett.

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  • Reduced levels of clinical or radiological pneumonia in clin- ical trials of a nine-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine provide an estimate of the vaccine-preventable disease burden (valency indicates the number of serotypes against which the vaccine provides protection; conjugate refers to conjugation of polysaccharides to a protein backbone). In a study in The Gambia, 37 percent of radiological pneumonia was prevented, reflecting the amount of disease caused by S. pneumoniae, and mortality was reduced by 16 percent (Cutts and others 2005).

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  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) was recognized as a major cause of pneumonia in the 1880s. Although the name Diplococcus pneumoniae was originally assigned to the pneumococcus, the organism was renamed Streptococcus pneumoniae because, like other streptococci, it grows in chains in liquid medium. Widespread vaccination has reduced the incidence of pneumococcal infection, but this organism remains the principal bacterial cause of otitis media, acute purulent rhinosinusitis, pneumonia, and meningitis.

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  • Invasive Meningococcal Disease results from bacterial infection with Neisseria meningitidis, a gram-negative aerobic organism that is usually a commensal in humans; 5-25% of adults are asymptomatic carriers. 8 Meningococci that cause invasive disease develop a capsule that protects the organism from host defence mechanisms.

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