Biochemical screening

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 4. Screening and Prevention of Disease Screening and Prevention of Disease: Introduction A primary goal of health care is to prevent disease or to detect it early enough that intervention will be more effective. Strategies for disease screening and prevention are driven by evidence that testing and intervention are practical and effective. Currently most screening tests are readily available and inexpensive. Examples include tests that are biochemical (e.g., cholesterol, glucose), physiologic (e.g., blood pressure, growth curves), radiologic (e.g.

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  • Annexin B1 fromCysticercus cellulosaehas recently been identified using immunological screening in an attempt to find novel antigens for vaccine development against cysticercosis. The protein possesses anticoagulant activity and carries significant therapeutic potential due to its thrombus-targeting and thrombolytic properties.

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  • Now fully updated to reflect recent advances, this introduction provides a broad, but concise, coverage of recombinant DNA techniques. Written for advanced undergraduates, graduates and scientists who want to use this technology, emphasis is placed on the concepts underlying particular types of cloning vectors to aid understanding and to enable readers to devise suitable strategies for novel experimental situations. An introduction to the basic biochemical principles is presented first. Then PCR and cloning using E.

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  • Early interest in selenium by nutritionists concerned its high concentration in certain range plants and the consequent toxicosis in animals that grazed those plants. More recently, the essential nature of selenium has become the center of attention, and this element is now known to be required by laboratory animals, food animals (including fish), and humans. Its role as an integral feature of glutathione peroxidase has been established, and other possible functions are under active investigation.

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  • Medical advances have been occurring at breathtaking speed, with diagnostic and treatment options becoming available for conditions for which none previously existed. However, several aspects of health care remain the same. Patients continue to rely heavily on clinicians for help in understanding the burgeoning evidence in medical research and for providing optimal health care. Clinicians remain steadfast in their quest to meet the needs of their patients and to encourage innovation in meeting those needs.

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  • Chapter 004. Screening and Prevention of Disease Examples include tests that are biochemical (e.g., cholesterol, glucose), physiologic (e.g., blood pressure, growth curves), radiologic (e.g., mammogram, bone densitometry), or tissue specimens (e.g., Pap smear, fine-needle aspirations). In the future, it is anticipated that genetic testing will play an increasingly important role for predicting disease risk (Chap. 64). However, such tests are not widely used except for individuals at risk for high-penetrance genes based on family or ethnic history (e.g., BRCA1, BRCA2).

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  • Over a century ago, with the work of Alexander Graham Bell, the motivation underlying the first use of the telephone in communication had a health-related origin: a doctor attempted to be in contact with his deaf mother and sister. Early developments in electronic patient records took place over 40 years ago through the pioneering work of Ed Hammond and his interest in community and family medicine. Very soon, the European Union will be celebrating a 20-year history of co-financing eHealth research and development initiatives.

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  • Sexual dysfunction is one of the most common conditions seen in a primary care provider’s office. Large surveys indicate that one fourth or more of patients report sexual distress or dysfunction. Yet the diagnosis is rarely made, even though most patients who have a sexual problem report that they wish their physician would ask about it. Why do physicians not uncover sexual problems? Many physicians state that they do not know what to do when they uncover a sexual problem.

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  • This study was motivated by a conflict between the nonproliferation objectives of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which created increasing pressures to phase out U.S. exports of highly enriched uranium (HEU) for medical isotope production, and the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which sought to increase the reliability of medical isotope supply by lifting the requirements of the 1992 Act for HEU exports to Canada, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, and Germany for medical isotope production.

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  • While communications and network security are ongoing concerns, current technology is also making impressive strides in bioinformatics, which concentrates on untangling the complex relationships and connections that enable viruses and other diseases to attack the human body. California-based Ingenuity’s Variant Analysis and IPA (Ingenuity Pathways Analysis) Web-based software identifies and analyses individually modelled relationships between proteins, genes, complexes, cells, tissues, metabolites, drugs, and diseases.

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  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, contains a hydrogenase enzyme, which is induced by anaerobic adaptation of the cells. Using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) approach, the differential expression of genes under anaerobiosis was analyzed. A PCR fragment with similarity to the genes of bacterial Fe-hydrogenases was isolated and used to screen an anaerobic cDNA expression library of C. reinhardtii.

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  • Recent expansion of biomedical knowledge on the interactions between the fetus, placenta, and the mother have transformed our view of pregnancy in general. Recent basic and clinical investigations have improved significantly our understanding on how hormones affect the pregnancy, and on how pregnancy affects the fetal and maternal hormones. Because pregnancy may be seen as the ultimate hormonally mediated event, the topic of endocrinology of pregnancy is particularly relevant.

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  • We performed a functional genetic screen to find novel antiapoptotic genes that are under the regulation of the oncoprotein c-Src. Several clones were identified, including subunit S5a of the 26Sproteasome. We found that S5a rescued Saos-2 cells from apoptosis induced by Src inhibitor 4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP1).

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  • SUT2was found ina screen formulticopy suppressorsof the synthetic slow growth phenotype of aDras2Dgpa2double deletion mutant. It failed, however, to cure the lethal phenotype of aDras1Dras2mutant suggesting that it acts upstreamof Ras or in a parallel pathway. By testing cAMP-dependent reactions including the accumulation of storage carbohydrates, pseudohyphal differentiation, entry of mei-osis as well as the measurement ofFLO11reporter activity we show that Sut2pmodulates the activity of protein kinase A (PKA)....

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  • Malassezia sympodialisis an opportunistic yeast that col-onizes human skin and may induce IgE and T cell reac-tivity in patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS). Previously, we have cloned and expressed six recombinant allergens (rMala s 1 and rMala s 5 to rMal-a s 9) from this yeast. By combining high throughput screening and phage surface display techniques, 27 com-plete and partial IgE-binding clones of M. sympodialis have been identified. Here we enlarged the panel of recombinant M.

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  • We report here the full coding sequence of a novel mouse putative membrane-associated mucin containing three extracellular EGF-like motifs and a mucin-like domain consisting of at least 20 tandem repeats of 124–126 amino acids. Screening a cosmid and a BAC libraries allowed to isolate several genomic clones. Genomic and cDNA sequence comparisons showed that the gene consists of 25 exons and 24 introns covering a genomic region of  52 kb. The first intron is  16 kb in length and is followed by an unusually large exon ( 9.5 kb) encoding Ser/Thr-rich tandemly repeated sequences....

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  • A healthy 45-year-old man is found on routine screening to have hypertriglyceridemia. He is a nonsmoker, has a reasonable diet, consumes one alcoholic drink per week, and exercises regularly. He takes no medications. His father died at the age of 55 years in an automobile accident; his mother is healthy at 67 years of age, and he has two healthy older brothers. His blood pressure is normal, his body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) is 28, and his waist circumference is 96 cm.

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  • Autoantibodies against autologus tumor-associated antigens have been detected in the asymptomatic stage of cancer and can thus serve as biomar-kers for early cancer diagnosis. Moreover, because autoantibodies are found in sera, they can be screened easily using a noninvasive approach. Consequently, many studies have been initiated to identify novel autoanti-bodies relevant to various cancer types.

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  • After screening 25 marine invertebrates, a novel metallocarboxypeptidase (SmCP) has been identified by activity and MS analytical approaches, and isolated from the marine annelid Sabellastarte magnifica. The enzyme, which is a minor component of the molecularly complex animal body, as shown by 2D gel electrophoresis, has been purified from crude extracts to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on potato carboxypeptidase inhib-itor and by ion exchange chromatography.

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  • Enzyme enhancement therapy is an emerging therapeutic approach that has the potential to treat many genetic diseases. Candidate diseases are those associated with a mutant protein that has difficulty folding and⁄or assembling into active oligomers in the endoplasmic reticulum.

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