Biogeographic theory

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  • Bertrand and Mullainathan (1998) illustrate the potential power of designs that consider interactions across governance mechanisms. They examine the impact on executive compensation of changes in states’ anti-takeover legislation. Adoption of anti-takeover legislation presumably reduces pressure on top managers. They attempt to distinguish between optimal contracting and skimming theories in explaining observed contracting arrangements.

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  • This book explores four overlapping themes in biogeography among multiple plant and animal groups, across subcontinental to global spatial scales, and over evolutionary time. These four themes include: 1) biogeographic theory and tests of concepts and processes; 2) the regional biogeography of individual taxa; 3) historical and contemporary biogeography of complex landscapes; and 4) the evolutionary biogeography of macrotaxa. In the first chapter of the conceptual biogeography section, Khalid Al Mutairi et al.

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  • This report uses a new methodology for profiling sectors, building a picture of the LCEGS sector from  the bottom up, rather than from the top down as is traditionally the case.   Using a full sector analysis model (see Box 2.

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  • Some companies let you use your life insurance death benefit to pay for specific conditions such as terminal illness or for qualified long-term care expenses such as home health care, assisted living or nursing home care. A life insurance death benefit you use while you are alive is known as an accelerated death benefit. A life insurance policy that uses an accelerated death benefit to pay for long-term care expenses may also be known as a “life/long-term care” policy. It may be an individual or a group life insurance policy.

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  • “Structured products” are one of the fastest growing areas in the financial services industry, and may already be over half of the notional size of the hedge fund industry (AUM plus leverage). These products, constructed by investment banks, are extremely complex using synthetic option replication techniques, and offering a variety of guarantees in returns. They are sold to retail, private banking and institutional clients. Hedge funds help reduce volatility risk for investment banks in supplying these products. ...

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  • About Ernst & Young’s Global Asset Management Center The asset management industry is evolving at a deceptively fast pace. Asset managers and service providers face challenges every single day whether it’s managing business growth, mitigating risk, providing transparency or embracing regulatory scrutiny. Ernst & Young’s Global Asset Management Center brings together a worldwide team of professionals to help you achieve your potential — a team with deep technical experience in providing assurance, tax, transaction and advisory services.

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  • The Fund’s exposure to liquidity risk is concentrated in the daily cash redemptions of shares. The Fund primarily invests in securities that are traded in active markets and can be readily disposed. In addition, the Fund retains sufficient cash and cash equivalent positions to maintain liquidity. The Fund may, from time to time, enter into over-the-counter derivative contracts or invest in unlisted securities, which are not traded in an organized market and may be illiquid.

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  • The Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework (VEYLDF) (Victorian Framework) birth to eight years, has been developed in partnership with the Office for Children and Portfolio Coordination, Department of Education and Early Childhood De- velopment (DEECD) and the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority (VCAA). The VEYLDF was launched November 2009 for implementation in 2010. The Victorian Framework describes five Learning and Development Outcomes for children from birth to eight years.

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  • Additional solutions that improve business continuity and availability for Oracle RAC in an Oracle Virtual Machine environment include Oracle VM Live Migration and Oracle RAC One Node Online Database Relocation Oracle VM Live Migration moves a virtual machine from one physical node to another, within the same pool of servers. Oracle RAC One Node Online Database Relocation moves an Oracle database instance from one server to another within the same cluster. In Oracle VM environments, these servers are virtual machines, which host an Oracle Clusterware based cluster.

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  • Professional investors often explicitly or implicitly claim to understand the fundamentals of finance theory. They may, for example, base allocation decisions on historical returns, volatility, correlations of returns across funds or asset classes, investment fees, industry outlooks, or various other financial metrics. Most 401(k) participants do not have access to much of that information or are poorly equipped to benefit from it. They may be guided by recent historical returns, which are typically readily available and understood, even if incorrectly so.

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  • Extrapulmonary organ involvement in human immunodefiaency virus (HIV)-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is reported to be 26%, however, the clinical predictors of extrapulmonary involvement in pulmonary TB patients has not been reported yet. We tried to determine the clinical predictors of presence of extrapulmonary involvement in patients with pulmonary TB. Cross-sectional study was performed including all adult patients with culture-proven pulmonary TB diagnosed between January 1, 2004 and July 30, 2006, at a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea.

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  • Certified in Financial Forensics, a specialty credential of the AICPA. The CFF encompasses fundamental and specialized forensic accounting skills that CPA practitioners apply in a variety of service areas, including: bankruptcy and insolvency; computer forensics; economic damages; family law; fraud investigations; litigation support; stakeholder disputes and valuations. The CFF is one of four AICPA specialty credentials, the others being Personal Financial Specialist (PFS), Accredited in Business Valuation (ABV) and Certified Information Technology Professional (CITP)....

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  • A materialized view (MV) is a more complex physical design structure than an index since a materialized view may be defined over multiple tables, and can involve selection, projection, join and group by. This richness of structure of MVs makes the problem of selecting materialized views significantly more complex than that of index selection. First, for a given query (and hence workload) the space of materialized views that must be considered is much larger than the space of indexes. For example, MVs on any subset of tables referenced in the query may be relevant.

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  • In a dynamic admissions landscape, one of the primary drivers of admissions success is static and unchanging—an effective, error-free application. While it may seem rudimentary, applicants are encouraged to thoroughly proofread their applications for careless errors and enlist trusted friends, family, colleagues or a skilled admissions consultant to do the same to avoid the number one most common application faux pas. Applicants also need to resist the temptation to copy and paste material from one appli- cation to another, or to decide that an essay is “good enough.

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  • Major portions of the code directories have been restructured. Mainly, code which was almost identical was placed in the "Shared_source" directory. This code is shared between several programs; however, unlike the code in the Common directory, the code cannot be compiled once for all the NSM tools. In each of the directories which need access to the shared code, symbolic links are made to these files. These changes will reduce the total code size, and, hopefully make the maintenance easier....

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  • Procrastination is captured by the tendency of many people to have high short-term discount rates but lower long-term discount rates (hyperbolic discounting). Postponing a cost, even one that generates high future benefits, is therefore attractive. So too is advancing a benefit to the present, even if this implies high future costs. This leads to outcomes such as credit card borrowing at high interest rates and unwillingness to engage in painful activities such as financial planning.

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  • Cormac Callanan is director of Aconite Internet Solutions ( which provides expertise in policy development in the area of cybercrime and Internet security & safety. Holding an MSc in Computer Science, he has over 25 years working experience on international computer networks and 10 years experience in the area of cybercrime. He has provided training at Interpol and Europol and to law enforcement agencies around the world. He currently provides consultancy services around the world and worked on policy development with the Council of Europe and the UNODC.

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  • According to the traditional water pollution control approach, user-requirement issues would often be overlooked because the identification of such problems is not based on objectively verifiable indicators. Whereas an impact issue can be identified by the presence of, for example, a pollution source or a human activity causing deterioration of the aquatic resources (e.g. deforestation), user-requirement issues are identified by a lack of water of adequate quality for a specific, intended use. ...

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  • Presumably, the amount of observable discrimination against minorities in wages and employment depends not only on tastes for discrimination, but also on other variables, such as the degree of competition and civil rights legislation. However, aside from the important theory of compensating differentials originated by Adam Smith, and a few major studies like Myr- dal’s American Dilemma [1944], there was little else available in the 1950s to build on to analyze how prejudice and other variables interact. ...

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  • Research Councils UK (RCUK) accepts that each research organisation’s (RO) procedures for ensuring reporting on and investigation into allegations of unacceptable research conduct must be aligned to their own internal requirements. In many cases ROs will need to align these with other human resource and disciplinary/conduct procedures. In the absence of existing procedures or where ROs are upgrading these, RCUK also notes the published guidance by the UK Research Integrity Office (August 2008) on “Procedure for the Investigation of Misconduct in Research”.

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