Biological earth

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  • Earth science is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth.[2] It is arguably a special case in planetary science, the Earth being the only known life-bearing planet. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. The formal discipline of Earth sciences may include the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans and biosphere, as well as the solid earth.

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  • The state of aquatic ecosystems reflects the general state of the biosphere. The situation in the biosphere affected by anthropogenic factors was characterized as “a slow explosion” (Fedorov 1987). The global change in the biosphere and climatic system of the Earth is a manifestation of this “slow explosion” (World Resources 1990–1991, Izrael et al. 1992).

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  • We live in an era with unparalleled opportunities to practice disease prevention based on knowledge of the earth environment. Although globally distributed early warning systems can monitor physical hazards such as earthquakes and tsunamis, chemical hazards on the other hand—whether actual or potential and natural or anthropogenically induced—remain difficult to accurately identify in time and space. Such hazards often have lengthy asymptomatic latency periods before disability or disease becomes evident....

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  • In this Unit, you will discover What molecules make up cells How the cell membrane separates cells from their external environment but allows substances into and out of the cell What special functions cell structures have and how these contribute to keeping an organism alive What processes in cells capture and release the energy needed for survival and how we harness these processes Cellular Functions It has been said that we are made of the stuff of stars. What do you think this means? The pine wood cells pictured on the right and all other organisms on Earth are made mostly of only...

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  • This chapter define radiometric dating, serial endosymbiosis, Pangaea, snowball Earth, exaptation, heterochrony, and paedomorphosis; describe the contributions made by Oparin, Haldane, Miller, and Urey toward understanding the origin of organic molecules; explain why RNA, not DNA, was likely the first genetic material.

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  • Chapter 26 - Early earth and the origin of life. This chapter presents the following content: Life on Earth originated between 3.5 and 4.0 billion years ago, prokaryotes dominated evolutionary history from 3.5 to 2.0 billion years ago, Oxygen began accumulating in the atmosphere about 2.7 billion years ago,...

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  • This chapter presents the following content: Polar covalent bonds in water molecules result in hydrogen bonding, four emergent properties of water contribute to Earth's suitability for life, acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms.

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  • Chapter 25 - The history of life on earth. This chapter define radiometric dating, serial endosymbiosis, Pangaea, snowball Earth, exaptation, heterochrony, and paedomorphosis; describe the contributions made by Oparin, Haldane, Miller, and Urey toward understanding the origin of organic molecules; explain why RNA, not DNA, was likely the first genetic material;...

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  • Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth sciences) is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth.[1] It is arguably a special case in planetary science, the Earth being the only known life-bearing planet. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. The formal discipline of Earth sciences may include the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans and biosphere, as well as the solid earth.

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  • Marine birds are equally at home on land, in the air, and in the water. While many organisms can go from land to water (amphibians, some reptiles, some insects), others generally live in only one medium during their lives. Marine birds switch from one to the other, often daily. Such flexibility requires unique physiological and morphological adaptations to the environment, a medium that has also exerted selective forces on the behavior, ecology, and demography of these birds.

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  • This book covers some of the most important current research related to biological engineering. It is partly a textbook and partly a monograph. It is a textbook because it gives a detailed introduction to biological engineering techniques and applications. It is simultaneously a monograph because it presents and brings together several new results, concepts and further developments. Furthermore, the research results previously scattered throughout many scientific journals and conference papers worldwide, are methodically collected and presented in the book in a unified form....

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  • Earth Science is made up of many different areas of geological study. Since the Earth contains everything from clouds (meteorology) and oceans (marine biology) to fossils (paleontology) and earthquakes (geology/plate tectonics), there is a lot to choose from!

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  • The environmental challenges we face today include all of the same ones that we faced more than 30 years ago at the first Earth Day celebration in 1970. In spite of the unflagging efforts of environmental professionals (and others), environmental problems remain. Many large metropolitan areas continue to be plagued by smog, beaches are periodically polluted by oil spills, and many running waters (rivers and streams) still suffer the effects of poorly treated sewage and industrial discharges....

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  • The rain forest takes an immense breath and then exhales, once every four or five years, as a major global weather pattern plays out, usually heralded by El Nin˜o–Southern Oscillation. While this powerful natural cycle has occurred for many millennia, it is during the past decade that both the climate of Earth and the people living on it have had an increasing influence on the weather pattern itself, with many biological consequences. In Southeast Asia, as also in most of the Neotropics, El Nin˜o accompanies one of the most exuberant outpourings of nature’s diversity.

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  • The same amount of water has been present on our planet for about 4 billion years, since shortly after the Earth was formed. Since then it has cycled through evaporation, condensation, precipitation and surface runoff multiple times. Water scarcity as an abiotic factor ranging from moderate to severe stress levels, accompanied by loss of moisture in the soil, is extremely hard for most organisms to cope with, particularly terrestrial plants and their food-chain dependents.

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  • Performing experiments in low Earth orbit has been the focus of much of the research funded by NASA’s Physical Sciences Division (PSD) and its predecessors for over 30 years. This microgravity research can be divided into five broad areas, all of which focus primarily on phenomena that are strongly perturbed by gravity: biotechnology, combustion, fluid physics, fundamental physics, and materials science.

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  • Soil is a biogeochemically dynamic natural resource that supports all critical components that comprise terrestrial ecosystems. It has been called Earth’s living skin. On its June 11, 2004, cover, Science declared soils to be “the final frontier.” The growing awareness that soil provides a variety of ecosystem services beyond food production has attracted interest in soil from nonsoil scientists.

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  • C H A P T E R 1 The Vertebrate Story: An Overview Life on Earth began some 3.5 billion years ago when a series of reactions culminated in a molecule that could reproduce itself. Although life forms may exist elsewhere in our universe or even beyond, life as we know it occurs only on the planet Earth.

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  • “Earth is a unique planet, possibly one of the few in the galaxy that has water. Nearly 71% of it’s surface is ocean. From space, Earth is brilliantly blue, white in places with clouds and ice, sometimes swirling with storms. At it’s surface the ocean is in constant motion with powerful currents that stretch for thousands of miles and towering waves. Beneath the ocean’s surface lie hidden mountain ranges, vast trenches tens of thousands of feet deep, immense hot springs, and huge volcanoes spewing molten rock in massive eruptions.”...

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  • Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo Galilei developed the scientific knowledge that became the underpinning of spaceflight. Edward Everett Hale in ‘‘The Brick Moon’’ and Jules Verne in ‘‘From the Earth to the Moon’’ dreamed and wrote about it. But finally in the last half of the twentieth century, it was the Americans and the Soviet Russians, locked in the throes of the Cold War, who accomplished it.

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