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Bleaching on the wood

Xem 1-5 trên 5 kết quả Bleaching on the wood
  • Results indicated that in the natural varnishing effects of wood species on the layer hardness of varnish are unimportant but the effects of varnish types are important. In the varnishing, after bleaching the wood types, bleaching chemicals and their concentration and varnish kinds effected the layer hardness of varnish.

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  • The aim of this research was to determine the effects of bleaching chemicals on the bending strength of wood. For this purpose, sodium hydroxide + hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydroxide + calcium hydroxide + hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorite and hydrochloric acid were applied to pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky), ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and oak (Quercus petraea spp.) for bleaching.

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  • The possibilities of dissolving grade pulp production from poplar by an ethanol-water process were investigated. The effects of ethanol ratio, cooking temperature and acid catalyst ratio on unbleached, bleached and alkali-purified pulps were studied. It was seen that catalyst ratios exceeding 0.01% caused serious yield and viscosity losses.

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  • The Chempolis process is also based on using formic and acetic acid (Rousu & Rousu 2000, Rousu et al. 2003, Anttila et al. 2006) as cooking chemicals to produce pulp, biochemicals and biofuels from non-wood raw materials. Formic acid is the main component in cooking liquor. After cooking, the pulp is washed and pressed in several stages with formic acid. The last washing stage is performed at a high pulp consistency with performic acid. Then, the pulp is bleached with alkaline peroxide. Spent cooking liquor can be evaporated to 90% dry solids and incinerated.

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  • China’s papermaking technology itself is relatively similar across establishments because, until recently, the industry relied on a couple of domestic manufacturers making nearly identical machines for each stage in the papermaking process (CTAPI (1993)). The critical differences in the technology come from the use of two alternative raw materials (wood and non-wood fibers) and from the production of either bleached or unbleached papers. Both differences are important to understanding the industry’s pollution.

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