Bounded innovation

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  • The deployment of ‘new’ environmental policy instruments (NEPIs), namely eco-taxes and other market-based instruments (MBIs), voluntary agreements (VAs) and informational devices such as eco-labels, has grown spectacularly in recent years. In 1987, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) [OECD, 1994:177] reported that most national environmental policies still relied upon a regulatory or ‘command and control’ mode of action, but since then the number of MBIs has grown ‘substantially’ [CEC, 2000:2].

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  • According to a recent view of culture as a dynamic process (Miller 1995; Shaw and Clarke 1998), cultural differences often cause differences in consumer behavior within and across national borders. Referring to the identification of consumer segments across countries, macro-level geographic, political, economic, and cultural data have been typically used (e.g., Helsen et al. 1993; Kale 1995). In fact, to identify market segments, national borders and the study of culture are appropriate as segmentation criteria when consumer behavior is "culture bound" (e.g.

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  • OSI consists of two environments; the OSI environment, which is made up of seven layers of OSI protocols and the local system environment, which is the end computer system. The reason for dividing the environment in this way was to avoid interfering with the innovation of the design and implementation of computer systems. OSI facilitates a vehicle to communicate between dissimilar or similar computer based systems. The local computer system environment has a closed operating system and performs its designed functions within these bounds...

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  • Technical Standards for Networks In the past, telecommunications networks have been evolved in the minds of their designers to meet well defined but changing user demands. These broadly innovative influences are bound to persist and users can look forward toever more sophisticated telecommunications services in the future. Itwas onlyin themid-1960s that customer-dialled international telephone callsfirst became possible, and in those days such calls were for therich alone.

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