Brain death

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  • The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Death and Dying is a contribution to the understanding of life. Scientists and poets have long recognized that life and death are so intimately entwined that knowledge of one requires knowledge of the other. The Old Testament observes that “all flesh is as grass.” Religions have addressed the question of how one should live with the awareness of inevitable death. Often the answer has been based upon the vision of a life beyond death.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về y học đề tài: Pro/con ethics debate: Should mechanical ventilation be continued to allow for progression to brain death so that organs can be donated?

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Minimizing charges associated with the determination of brain death...

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: A survey of American neurologists about brain death: understanding of the conceptual basis and diagnostic tests for brain death

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  • Cerebrovascular diseases have an enormous and increasing impact on societies: they rank among the leading causes of death, are often associated with chronic handicap, and cause high costs for primary treatment, rehabilitation and chronic care. The advent of treatment options such as reperfusion therapies and, to a lesser degree, neuroprotective strategies on the one hand, and growing means to enhance rehabilitation and functional plasticity on the other hand, urges physicians to diagnose stroke subtypes as early and precisely as possible.

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  • Apoptosis in the developing nervous system results in naturally occurring cell death (NOCD), a necessary and desirable process. NOCD effectively eliminates neurons that have made faulty synapses or have not reached appropriate targets. 1 In the rest of the organism, apoptosis is essential for organogenesis, sculpts digits and extremities, and plays a role in determining polarity of structures by contributing to directional growth of cell populations. 2 Failure of carefully orchestrated and effective apoptosis in the developing fetus can have serious and long-lasting effects in the adult.

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  • ontological mode, wherever there are what might be called `modified objects' to which the modified meanings refer. And indeed, according to Meinong and Witasek, such is the case in the domain of `presentations' and other psychic phenomena. That which I experience when I `see' the sheriff on the screen is not strictly speaking, a presentation at all, for when I present to myself the sheriff in the throes of death, there is no (existing) object which is presented to me (and here it is irrelevant whether a certain person - an actor - was involved at an early stage...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Bench-to-bedside review: Apoptosis/programmed cell death triggered by traumatic brain injury...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Minireview cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Systematic analysis of gene expression in human brains before and after death...

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  • As the origin of a life-and-death signal detected from systemic arterial pressure, which sequentially increases (pro-life) and decreases (pro-death) to reflect progressive dysfunction of central cardiovascular regulation during the advancement towards brain stem death in critically ill patients, the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is a suitable neural substrate for mechanistic delineation of this fatal phenomenon.

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  • Despite its clinical importance, a dearth of information exists on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underpin brain stem death. A suitable neural substrate for mechanistic delineation on brain stem death resides in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) because it is the origin of a life-and-death signal that sequentially increases (pro-life) and decreases (pro-death) to reflect the advancing central cardiovascular regulatory dysfunction during the progression towards brain stem death in critically ill patients.

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  • An emerging body of evidence supports a key role for the endocannabinoid system in numerous physiological and pathological mechanisms of the cen-tral nervous system. In the recent past, many experimental studies have examined the putative protective or toxic effects of drugs interacting with cannabinoid receptors or have measured the brain levels of endocannabi-noids inin vitro and in vivo models of cerebral ischemia.

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  • Stroke is the third leading cause of death in industrialized countries but efficacious stroke treatment is still an unmet need. Preclinical research indi-cates that different molecules afford protection from ischemic neurodegen-eration, but all clinical trials conducted so far have inexorably failed.

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  • Reactive oxygen species contribute to the development of various human diseases. Ischemia is characterized by both significant oxidative stress and characteristic changes in the antioxidant defense mechanism. Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) has a potent ability to increase cell survival in response to oxidative stress. In the present study, we have investigated the protective effects of PEP-1–HSP27 against cell death and ischemic insults.

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  • There has been a number of excellent books published in recent years on the subject of fetal monitoring. Their primary function has been to examine the nature of the fetal heart rate and the physiology and pathophysiology of the regulation of the fetal heart beat and how this can be applied to the detection of fetal asphyxia and the prediction of adverse outcome for the fetus, either in terms of fetal death or brain damage.

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  • Introduction: Many of antidepressants exert their effects by inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin and by accerelating the release of them at synaptic terminals of neurons in the brain. As characteristic structures of such drugs showing antidepressive effects, many of them have tricyclic or tetracyclic nuclei; this is the reason why they are called “tricyclic antidepressants or tetracyclic antidepressants”. There are many cases of suicides using the antidepressants; their massive intake sometimes causes death.

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  • Every day, more than two thousand children worldwide die from accidental injury. Each year, as many as three million children are saved from one leading cause of child deaths drowning. Yet survivors can suffer brain damage. As a result, the lifetime health and economic costs of a nonfatal drowning are the highest on average of any kind of injury.

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  • As it is associated with significant number of complications (11,8% to 21,6%) as well as high costs, some authors advocate conservative treatment. High incidence of re-ruptures (12% to 17%), lengthened tendon and loss of strength are the main arguments for the opponents to criticize this method. Percutaneous repair seems to bridge the gap, combining the advantages of conservative and operative treatment, particularly if performed in an outpatient manner and under local anesthesia.

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  • There are two main types of brain cancer. Primary brain cancer starts in the brain. Metastatic brain cancer starts somewhere else in the body and moves to the brain. According to the American Brain Tumor Association, brain tumors are the most common of the solid tumors in children, and the second most frequent malignancy of childhood. Brain tumors are the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in males under 40 and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in females under age 20.

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  • The interplay among reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, elevated intracellular calcium concentration and mitochondrial demise is a recurring theme in research focusing on brain pathology, both for acute and chronic neurodegenerative states. However, causality, extent of contribution or the sequence of these events prior to cell death is not yet firmly established.

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