Cancer institute

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  • According to the National Cancer Institute, cancer continues to take a devastating toll. Among women in the United States, cancer is the second-leading cause of death after heart disease. Medical researchers fighting against cancer have made significant progress, however. In recent years, cancer incidence rates have been stable, and—although the annual rate of decline in cancer death rates among men have been twice as large as the declines in women—mortality has decreased for ten of the top 15 cancers in women.

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  • Table 86-2 5-Year Survival Rate for Breast Cancer by Stage Stage 5-Year Survival, % 0 99 I 92 IIA 82 IIB 65 IIIA 47 IIIB 44 IV 14 Source: Modified from data of the National Cancer Institute—Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER). Estrogen and progesterone receptor status are of prognostic significance. Tumors that lack either or both of these receptors are more likely to recur than tumors that have them. Several measures of tumor growth rate correlate with early relapse. S-phase analysis using flow cytometry is the most accurate measure.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Retrovirology cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Expression Section in the HIV Drug Resistance Program at the National Cancer Institute-Frederick...

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  • Ovarian cancer is the most common fatal cancer of the female reproductive tract in industrialized countries. At the time of writing, it is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in women in the U.K., after breast, lung, and colorectal cancer, with a lifetime risk of approximately 2% (1). It tends to present at an advanced stage, with limited prospects for treatment and generally poor survival.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài:Medicine/Cancer Institute, Department of Pharmacology, First Avenue, New York,...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Minireview cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard School of Public Health ...

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  • Cancer, although a dreadful disease, is at the same time a fascinating biological phenotype. Around 1980, cancer was first attributed to malfunctioning genes and, subsequently, cancer research has become a major area of scientific research supporting the foundations of modern biology to a great extent. To unravel the human genome sequence was one of those extraordinary tasks, which has largely been fuelled by cancer research, and many of the fascinating insights into the genetic circuits that regulate developmental processes have also emerged from research on cancer....

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  • Countless organizations have their own intricate and well-developed thesauri that have been refined over many years. With consummate converters, these thesauri can become a strong and useful element on the semantic web. Like the Thésaurus from the National Cancer Institute, many are available in an unusual form of XML, or not in XML at all. As in this case, simple translations using standard XML parsers often will not be a reasonable solution for making the transition to RDF or OWL. The most time...

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  • The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Office of Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research (OBBR) asked the RAND Corporation to identify and analyze existing data on the effects of preanalytical variables on biospecimens used to study genetic and proteomic changes in cancer. The project was broken down into three phases.

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  • Benign breast disease comprises a wide range of conditions which worry patients, which vex physicians, which are vastly more common than breast cancer, and yet which have to date received relatively little attention in the medical literature. It is therefore a particular pleasure for me to introduce the third edition of Hughes, Mansel & Webster’s Benign Disorders and Diseases of the Breast, a unique and classic work which fully succeeds in addressing this imbalance and builds on the substantial and well-deserved success of the first (1989) and second (2000) editions.

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  • Differentiated thyroid cancer is the fastest‐growing cancer in women; it increased 2.4% per year during 1980 to 1997 and 6.5% per year during 1997 to 2006 in the USA according to the National Cancer Instituteʹs Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER). On the other hand, the refinement of new approaches for surveillance of patients with an established diagnosis of thyroid cancer is leading to the observation that many patients, previously thought to be cured, have evidence of minimal residual disease, a condition with which we still do not know how to manage properly....

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  • Other Nonmelanoma Cutaneous Malignancies Neoplasms of cutaneous adnexa and sarcomas of fibrous, mesenchymal, fatty, and vascular tissues make up 1–2% of NMSC (Table 83-6). Some can portend a poor prognosis such as Merkel cell carcinoma, which is a neural crestderived, highly aggressive malignancy that exhibits a metastatic rate of 75% and a 5-year survival rate of 30–40%. Others, such as the human herpes virus 8-induced, HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma, exhibit a more indolent course.

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  • Diffuse interstitial infiltrates suggest viral, parasitic, or Pneumocystis pneumonia. If the patient has a diffuse interstitial pattern on chest x-ray, it may be reasonable to institute empirical treatment with TMP-SMX (for Pneumocystis) and a quinolone (for Chlamydophila, Mycoplasma, and Legionella) or an erythromycin derivative (e.g., azithromycin) while considering invasive diagnostic procedures. Noninvasive procedures, such as staining of sputum smears for Pneumocystis, serum cryptococcal antigen tests, and urine testing for Legionella antigen, may be helpful.

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  • It is innately human to comfort and provide care to those suffering from cancer, particularly those close to death. Yet what seems self-evident at an individual, personal level has, by and large, not guided policy at the level of institutions in this country. There is no argument that palliative care should be integrated into cancer care from diagnosis to death.

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  • We first highlight psychological and psychosocial issues associated with breast can- cer, and then underscore specific psychosocial variables that may play a role in the dis- ease. Further, we bring to light the current literature of psychosocial interventions for patients with cancer. We then introduce preliminary research from an on-going study funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This is a pilot study intended to explore psychosocial factors and quality of life, preparatory to embarking on a larger scale, long- term study.

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  • Some adenomas produce too much adrenal steroid hormones. Sometimes the excess hormone can cause symptoms. Many of the hormone-related symptoms of adenomas are the same as those from adrenal carcinomas (cancers). These symptoms are discussed in the sections, “Can adrenal cancer be found early?” and “How is adrenal cancer diagnosed?” Adenomas are much more likely than carcinomas to produce high levels of aldosterone, which can cause high blood pressure. Treatment: Adenomas can be cured by removing the adrenal gland that contains the adenoma.

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  • Most inherited cases of breast cancer are associated with two abnormal genes: BRCA1 (BReast CAncer gene 1) and BRCA2 (BReast CAncer gene 2). According to the National Cancer Institute, women with an abnormal BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene have about a 60% risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer during their lifetimes (compared to about 12% for women overall). Their risk of ovarian cancer is also increased. Abnormal BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are found in 5% to 10% of all breast cancer cases in the United States. Other types of inherited gene abnormalities are less common.

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  • The need for a comprehensive NCI-wide terminology arose because NCI staff requires access to timely and accurate information about activities related to the scientific mission of the Institute. The collection, storage and retrieval of data related to NCI research programs is necessary to analyze, manage, and report about these activities. Though centralized coding of NCI-supported research-related activities met some of these needs, supplementary data coding had become common.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'from cancer patient to cancer survivor - lost in transition: an american society of clinical oncology and institute of medicine symposium', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Cancer of the breast is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Every year 1.6 million women are newly diagnosed with breast cancer glo-cancer accounts for 23% of all female cancers glo-bally and shows a geographic variation in incidenc are 39 per 100,000 worldwide – 27 in less and 66 usually applied in single-center institutions per 100,000 in the more developed regions. Out of the 425,000 global annual deaths from breast cancer, however, 68,000 are young women from develop-duce major improvements wit limited financialing countries1.

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