Canning process

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  • Hydraulic fracturing is an industrial process used to extract fossil fuel reserves that lie deep underground. With the introduction of horizontal drilling, new commercial sources of energy have become available. Wells are drilled and injected with large quantities of water mixed with specially selected chemicals at high pressures that allow petroleum reserves to flow to the surface. While the increased economic activities and the outputs of domestic energy are welcomed, there is growing concern over negative environmental impacts from horizontal drilling in shale formations.

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  • Reactions and transformations of chemicals. Many chemicals undergo reaction or transformation in the subsurface environment. In contrast to retardation contaminants may be removed, rather than simply slowed down. Reactions of harmful chemicals to yield benign products prior to arrival at a receptor are the ideal, e.g. many toxic hydrocarbons have potential to biodegrade to simple organic acids (of low health concern and themselves potentially degradable), carbon dioxide (bicarbonate) and water. Transformation often causes a deactivation (lowering) of toxicity.

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  • Many of the techniques that have been developed have already been used to study the extent and distribution of variation in species gene-pools and to investigate evolutionary and taxonomic relationships among plant populations. With the development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based techniques, in particular, numerous molecular technologies have been, and still are being, developed, which can be used for the detection, characterization, and evaluation of genetic diversity in plant populations.

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  • Although health economics provides a useful starting point for such analyses of coverage, the ultimate effect of a mandate is not easily reduced to, and in fact could differ from, the predicted effect of treating penalty amounts as dollar-for-dollar equivalents to subsidies. People can respond to penalties and subsidies differently and in ways that are not considered in standard health economics models.

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  • The chemical composition of bamboo is similar to that of wood. Table 2-2 shows the chemical composition of bamboo [Higuchi 1957]. The main constituents of bamboo culms are cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin, which amount to over 90% of the total mass. The minor constituents of bamboo are resins, tannins, waxes and inorganic salts. Compared with wood, however, bamboo has higher alkaline extractives, ash and silica contents [Tomalang et al. 1980; Chen et al. 1985]. Yusoff et al.

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  • Some southern producers also feel that premiums for buy-up coverage or revenue products are not affordable, leaving catastrophic policies (with minimal coverage) as the only viable option for many farmers. More broadly, some farm groups have requested that current subsidies be maintained or increased so premiums would be more affordable. 28 Corn producers want their premiums reduced because the loss ratio has been well below 1.0 (indemnities paid divided by premiums).

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  • Before 1999, PBgC did not make lump-sum payments to insolvent multiemployer plans or those expected to become insolvent in the future. it now does so in select cases to close out a plan or to facilitate a merger with another, financially stronger multiemployer plan. in a closeout, the plan either purchases annuities from the private insurance market to satisfy its obligations or pays participants lump sums in lieu of annuities.

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  • The proportion of public domain content in the HathiTrust Digital Library is relatively small (approximately 16% of titles in June 2010) and typically represents material that is not widely held in the library system; as a result, the number of libraries that might hope to reduce local print management costs for these titles through negotiated agreements with the HathiTrust and shared print providers is quite low. Moreover, the age and subject distribution of titles in the public domain is not representative of academic research collections as a whole.

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  • Cloning in essence means ‘making an exact copy’. Cloning of cells is a commonplace procedure in the life sciences and reproductive cloning of some animals is now possible. Dolly, the sheep was the fi rst such mammal to be born, in 1997. 1 Although there has been some opposition to the cloning of mammals, by and large it has been generally accepted by society, however, it has brought the possibility of the cloning of human beings too close for comfort. While the majority of people do not support cloning of human beings, there are a small minority that do largely base...

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  • In general, Oracle database security is outside the scope of this document. Like all other systems used in creating your cloud deployment, you are expected to properly secure them per industry best practices. Please refer to guides such as the Oracle Database Security Checklist, the Oracle Database Security Guide, and similar resources and apply them as appropriate in your environment.

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  • Monitoring and verification standards are required to ensure that offset projects perform as expected and to quantify their actual emission reductions. Monitoring protocols are generally developed in conjunction with accounting protocols. Verification usually requires the services of a third-party professional verifier, or a government regulator. If third-party verifiers are used, they need to meet minimum qualifications and have some expertise related to the types of projects they are verifying. This is one of the biggest gaps in the voluntary carbon offset market right now.

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  • ■ The acknowledgment contains a statement certifying that the charity intends to make a significant intervening use of the vehicle, a detailed description of the intended use, the duration of that use, and a certification that the vehicle will not be sold before completion of the use. ■ The acknowledgment contains a statement certifying that the charity intends to make a material improvement to the vehicle, a detailed description of the intended material improvement and a certification that the vehicle will not be sold before completion of the improvement. ...

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  • Dubai Press Club is pleased to present the third edition of the Arab Media Outlook 2009-2013. Arab Media Outlook is one of the pioneering media development initiatives of Dubai Press Club along with Arab Media Forum and Arab Journalism Award. The objective behind the report is to not only bring out an assessment of the media scene in the region in its entirety, but also to help build a knowledge base on the media for the benefit of industry stakeholders, policy makers, media scholars, students and the general public....

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  • Previous research on career implications of the MBA has focused on career anchors of executive MBA students (Chang, Hwang, Liu, & Siang, 2007), career expectations (Simmering & Wilcox, 1995), expectations of MBA quality (Rapert, Smith, Velliquette & Garretson, 2004) and student motivations (Thompson & Gui, 2000). The MBA degree is perceived to have a positive impact on employment, annual income and both short and long- term job promotion prospects (Zhao et al., 2000).

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  • Overall, our proposed framework is quite general and is applicable to investment decisions in real time. For one, moments used to form optimal portfolios obey closed-form expressions. This facilitates the implementation of formal trading strategies across a large universe of mutual funds.

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  • FA is a binary variable that indicates whether or not the households of the municipalities had receive any payments of the Familias en Accion program in June 2002, the start date of the survey under study. Households in some of the municipalities started to receive payments for longer than 6 months before the baseline interview, but for most of them it was just six months before the interview. The little time that the program has been operating should be taken into account when analyzing this variable, especially when the dependent variable is height for age or leg length as they...

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  • More than eight in ten Americans between the ages of 16 and 29 read a book in the past year, and six in ten used their local public library. At the youngest end of the spectrum, high schoolers in their late teens (ages 16-17) and college-aged young adults (ages 18-24) are especially likely to have read a book or used the library in the past 12 months. And although their library usage patterns may often be influenced by the requirements of school assignments, their interest in the possibilities of mobile technology may also point the way toward opportunities of further...

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  • The private sector consists of small businesses and large businesses. And the government often defines small as firms with fewer than 500 employees. 4 Using this definition, one-half of the private sector is populated by small businesses and the other half by large businesses. Or, put another way, in 2006, 60 million people were employed by smalls, and 60 million by large.

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  • Since human feeling is central to aesthetic history, it is to be expected that disability will crop up everywhere because the disabled body and mind always elicit powerful emotions. I am making a stronger claim: that disability is integral to aesthetic conceptions of the beautiful and that the influence of disability on art has grown, not dwindled, over the course of time. If this is the case, we may expect disability to exert even greater power over art in the future. We need to consider, then, how art is changed when we conceive of disability as an aesthetic value in...

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  • Among education buildings in our sample, the majority of the desktop computers, monitors and ICSs were found in classrooms clearly dedicated to computer-based learning. These “computer labs” typically have a 1:1 ratio between computers and chairs. Among the two high schools, 65% of desktop computers and ICSs were found in computer labs with at least 15 (and up to 77) computers each; among the two university classroom buildings, 68% of desktop computers and ICSs were found in computer labs with at least 15 (and up to 57) computers each....

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