Catalytic reforming

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  • REFINING OPERATIONS Petroleum refining operations can be separated into five basic areas: 1. Fractionation (distillation) is the separation of crude oil in atmospheric and vacuum distillation towers into different "fractions" or "cuts." 2. Conversion processes change the size and/or structure of hydrocarbon molecules. These processes include: − Decomposition by thermal and catalytic cracking; − Unification through alkylation and polymerization; − Alteration with isomerization and catalytic reforming. ...

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  • .I- MỤC ĐÍCH Phân hủy các phân đoạn nặng, với sự có mặt của chất xúc tác, nhằm thu được xăng (mục đích chính), gasoil và GPL .II- QUÁ TRÌNH PHÁT TRIỂN 1. Công nghệ cracking xúc tác tầng cố định 2. Công nghệ cracking xúc tác tầng di động (TCC : Thermofor Catalytic Cracking) 3. Công nghệ cracking xúc tác tầng sôi (FCC : Fluid Catalytic Cracking)

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  • Just as the chemical and physical properties of petroleum have offered challenges in selecting and designing optimal upgrading schemes, they also introduce challenges when determining the effects of petroleum and its product on the environment. In particular, predicting the fate of the polynuclear aromatic systems, the heteroatom systems (principally, compounds containing nitrogen and sulfur), and the metal-containing systems (principally, compounds of vanadium, nickel, and iron) in the feedstocks is the subject of many studies and migration models....

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  • Refinery Process Air Emissions The most significant air emission sources in oil refineries are catalytic or thermal cracking units, catalytic reformer units, sulfur recovery plants, storage vessels, fluid coking units wastewater streams, cooling towers, equipment leaks, blowdown systems, vacuum distillation units, steam boilers, process furnaces, process heaters, compressor engines, barge or ship loading and gasoline loading racks specifically located at petroleum refineries.

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  • Refinery SCR applications 4.1 SCR for steam cracking and reformer furnaces 4.1.1 Chromium deactivation mechanism 4.2 SCR DeNOx in fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) 4.2.1 SCR design issues 4.2.2 ABS condensation considerations 4.2.3 Catalyst selection 4.2.4 Catalyst cleaning

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  • The movement to reform the SNA has arisen because the accounts as now defined do not include the full economic value of environmental resources or the role which they play in productive activity. Some of the elements missing from the accounts include: · Environmental expenditures. Expenditures to protect the environment from harm, or to mitigate that harm, cannot not be identified from the data in the accounts. Such expenditures include the costs incurred to prevent environmental harm, such as pollution control equipment purchased by factories or catalytic converters in cars.

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