Cervix with acetic

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  • Screening for precancerous lesions can be done in several ways including, cervical cytology (Pap tests), visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid [VIA] or testing for HPV DNA. Each of these methods has specific advantages, disadvantages and health systems requirements that countries should consider when planning screening programmes (See Annex 1).

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  • Messages should be disseminated using existing, effective channels of communication. Use of mass media – through health, women’s and youth magazines, radio and television shows – can be effective in reaching large proportions of the target population, but should be done strategically. Using internet and SMS technologies can be useful in providing accurate information and countering misinformation. Messages regarding utilization of prevention services should be focused in areas where these services are planned or currently available...

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  • The first step of the screening process was a group or individual counseling session to explain the purpose and process of screening. A flipchart was used to assist in this process (see Appendix 2). During an individual counseling session, informed consent was obtained and pregnancy status was assessed. Syndromic assessment for sexually transmitted infections was part of the examination. For most of the project, women were screened primarily at health-center level by nurses using visual inspection with acetic acid (vinegar), known as VIA.

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  • Cervical cancer incidence is high among women living with HIV due to high-risk HPV persistence in the cervix. In low-income countries, cervical cancer screening is based on visual inspection with acetic acid. Implementing human papilloma virus (HPV) screening through self-sampling could increase women’s participation and screening performance.

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