Child malnutrition

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  • The ultimate sourcebook from America's leading alternative health expert. Yes, you can feel better, look better, and extend the best years of your life through proper nutrition and exercise. And there is no better guide to optimum health than this classic reference and sourcebook.

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  • The designations employed and the presentation of material do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area, its authorities, its current or former official name or the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

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  • Undernutrition affects large populations of boys and girls in developing countries. Its major determinant is poverty, which usually combines with other important factors like poor breastfeeding practices and inadequate complementary foods for babies, as well as lack of basic health care, safe water and sanitation. Globally, about 150 million children under five years are undernourished, which comprises 27% of the world’s population in this age group. Twelve million of these children die every year, and protein-energy malnutrition is implicated in more than 55% of all these deaths.

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  • The result is that nearly 200,000 children and infants are dying each year in Afghanistan. Most of the causes of these deaths are preventable: the four highest causes of death in children, and the percentage of total of under 5 child deaths expected in 2009, are neonatal causes (41%), pneumonia (21%), and diarrhea (14%) and measles (4%). These four account for 80% of child deaths each year. The issue of general and micro-nutrient malnutrition underlies all the causes of death because children are much more vulnerable if they are malnourished: as much as half of child deaths would not occur...

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  • So, for example, virtually all of the health conditions identified in the MDGs correlate with income poverty. But the solution to good health is not simply poverty reduction – full stop. Understanding the causal link is key.

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  • Those at the bottom of a socially stratified world are vulnerable to economic shocks, impoverishing effects of illness and co-morbidity—with one underlying condition (e.g., malnutrition or HIV/AIDS) making the development of another more likely (e.g., diarrhea or TB). Increasingly, child morbidity and mortality is seen as a function of co-morbidity, with malnutrition coinciding with other conditions such as measles, acute respiratory infection (ARI) and diarrhea.

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  • The major factors that prevent children from attaining their genetic growth potential can be divided into three types: insults in utero, infection, and the synergistic effect of infection and malnutrition. The evidence that specific events in utero affect long-term health is well established –consider, for example, rubella, thalidomide, smoking, and alcohol and drug abuse. The long-term effects of such insults ultimately depend on a range of interrelated factors, including maternal health status and the timing of the insult itself (Hall and Peckham, 1997).

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  • "Diseases related to inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene are a huge burden in developing countries. It is estimated that 88% of diarrhoeal disease is caused by unsafe water supply, and inadequate sanitation and hygiene (WHO, 2004c). Many schools serve communities that have a high prevalence of diseases related to inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene, and where child malnutrition and other underlying health problems are common.

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  • WBTi is a monitoring and evaluation tool initiated in Asia which uses the methodology and philosophy of Global Participatory Action Research (GLOPAR)1993 developed by the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) to track targets set by the Innocenti Declaration of 1990. WBTi has also adopted the WHO (2003) monitoring and evaluation tool on Infant and Young Child Feeding for assessing national practices, policies and programmes.

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  • Child malnutrition - measured as poor child growth - is internationally recognized as an important public health indicator. Young children are most vulnerable to malnutrition and face the greatest risk of its adverse consequences. Malnutrition is caused not only by food deprivation, but also by the debilitating effects of infectious diseases, such as diarrhoea and pneumonia, and lack of care. It contributes to over half of child deaths. Progress in reducing child malnutrition has been slow (see Figure 1).

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  • SCHIP’s success is contingent on children remaining insured. SCHIP has not, however, served as a bridge to private insurance coverage for children in the short term. Few low-income children have access to affordable private insurance. The vast majority of SCHIP enrollees remained insured because they continued to participate in public insurance. At followup, nearly 80 percent of SCHIP enrollees were enrolled in Medicaid or SCHIP. Some SCHIP enrollees, however, became uninsured.

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  • The health system is composed of the public sector, the for-profit private sector and the non-profit private sector. Health care services are provided mainly through the public sector network (NHS), which relies on 1277 health facilities (HF), organized in 4 levels, with a total of 15 877 beds6 and around 26 000 health workers (Table 4). Level I offers essential primary care services through 1224 HF (urban and rural health centres and health posts) representing 96% of all national HF.

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  • A detailed situational analysis of the nutrition situation in country, determinants of malnutrition and current nutrition interventions, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats can be found in annex 2. In brief, eighteen years of war and insecurity have had devastating effects on the nutrition and health status of the people of Somalia, which was already precarious even before.

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  • This book is for anyone with an interest in maternal and child health, but in particular for people who can play a role in strengthening it. The Asia Pacific has some of the biggest health challenges of any region. Here, health is a complex issue, at the heart of community development and wellbeing and yet held back by resources, attitudes and traditions. These aspects come together as barriers to deny fair access to health for more than half the people living in the Asia Pacific.

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  • Case studies show oxytocin and magnesium sulfate were included in national protocols for maternal health service provision as well as the EML and standard treatment guidelines in the majority of countries reviewed (where national data was collected and reported), including Ghana, Mali, Malawi, Mongolia, and India. Furthermore, the USAID/MCHIP survey states that most countries—except Rwanda and Ethiopia—reported that they have magnesium sulfate on their EMLs. Ethiopia reports that magnesium sulfate is under review, and it has plans to add it to the list soon.

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  • Constraints in access to other basic services: The weakening of public infrastructure and service delivery at the village level has resulted in the deprivation of basic rights and services (health, water, nutrition, sanitation, education, protection) for women and children, especially for the most vulnerable. As RedR India puts it in a recent assessment conducted in Chhattisgarh, “…prolonged civil strife in Dantewada has limited the access to life line services and resources.

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  • Each year, millions of women and children die from preventable causes. These are not mere statistics. They are people with names and faces. Their suffering is unacceptable in the 21st century. We must, therefore, do more for the newborn who succumbs to infection for want of a simple injection, and for the young boy who will never reach his full potential because of malnutrition. We must do more for the teenage girl facing an unwanted pregnancy; for the married woman who has found she is infected with the HIV virus; and for the mother who faces complications in childbirth....

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  • Malnutrition in all its forms either directly or indirectly is responsible for approximately half of all deaths worldwide. This applies to perinatal and infectious diseases as well as chronic diseases. Malnutrition accounts for 11% of the global burden of disease, leading to long-term poor health and disability and poor educational and developmental outcomes. Worldwide, by 2010 it was found that about 104 million children under five years of age were underweight and 171 million stunted.

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  • ALRI mortality from SFU has most likely declined in the last decades, and is likely to decline further even without a reduction in SFU or adoption of improved stoves. This comes about from a reduction in ALRI case fatality rates through for instance improved case management and reduction in malnutrition rates even in the event that incidence of morbidity does not decline.

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  • Affirming the right of every child and every pregnant and lactating woman to be adequately nourished, as a means of attaining and maintaining health; Recognizing that infant malnutrition is part of the wider problems of lack of education, poverty, and social injustice; Recognizing that the health of infants and young children cannot be isolated from the health and nutrition of women, their socioeconomic status and their roles as mothers; Conscious that breast-feeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; that it forms a uniqu...

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