Chlamydial infections

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  • Treat urethritis promptly, while test results are pending. Table 124-4 summarizes the steps in management of sexually active men with urethral discharge and/or dysuria. Table 124-4 Management of Urethral Discharge in Men Usual causes Usual initial evaluation Chlamydia trachomatis pyuria Neisseria gonorrhoeae Demonstration of urethral discharge or Exclusion of local or systemic Mycoplasma genitalium complications Ureaplasma urealyticum Urethral Gram's stain to confirm urethritis, detect gram-negative diplococci Trichomonas vaginalis Test for N. gonorrhoeae, C.

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  • Single-dose regimens of the third-generation cephalosporins ceftriaxone (given IM) and cefixime (given orally) are the mainstays of therapy for uncomplicated gonococcal infection of the urethra, cervix, rectum, or pharynx. Quinolone-containing regimens are no longer recommended in the United States as first-line treatment because of widespread resistance to these agents. Because co-infection with C. trachomatis occurs frequently, initial treatment regimens must also incorporate an agent (e.g., azithromycin or doxycycline) that is effective against chlamydial infection.

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  • The Encyclopedia of Diseases and Disorders provides authoritative information on a wide variety of diseases and health disorders. Although the focus in planning this collection of articles was on subjects of interest to young readers, the information provided here is valuable to users of any age. More than two hundred articles are categorized in three major areas of interest: infections, noninfectious diseases, and mental disorders.

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  • Chapter 124. Sexually Transmitted Infections: Overview and Clinical Approach (Part 20) Proctitis, Proctocolitis, Enterocolitis, and Enteritis: Treatment Acute proctitis in persons who have practiced receptive anorectal intercourse is usually sexually acquired. Such patients should undergo anoscopy to detect rectal ulcers or vesicles and petechiae after swabbing of the rectal mucosa; to examine rectal exudates for PMNs and gram-negative diplococci; and to obtain rectal swab specimens for testing for rectal gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, herpes, and syphilis.

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  • Chapter 124. Sexually Transmitted Infections: Overview and Clinical Approach (Part 21) Although gonorrhea is now substantially less common than chlamydial infection in industrialized countries, screening tests for N. gonorrhoeae are still appropriate for women and teenage girls attending STD clinics and for sexually active teens and young women from areas of high gonorrhea prevalence. Multiplex NAATs that combine screening for N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis in a single low-cost assay now facilitate the prevention and control of both infections in populations at high risk.

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  • Chapter 124. Sexually Transmitted Infections: Overview and Clinical Approach (Part 12) Figure 124-5 Gram's stain of cervical mucus, showing a strand of cervical mucus containing many polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This picture is typical of mucopurulent cervicitis. Note that leukocytes are not seen in areas of the slide containing vaginal epithelial cells, adjacent to the mucus strands.

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  • Three chlamydial species cause human infections: Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydophila psittaci, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. C. psittaci is widely distributed in nature, producing genital, conjunctival, intestinal, or respiratory infections in many mammalian and avian species. Genital infections with C. psittaci have been well characterized in several species and cause abortion and infertility. Although mammalian strains of C. psittaci are not known to infect humans, avian strains occasionally do so, causing pneumonia and the systemic illness known as psittacosis. C.

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  • Acne is a disorder of the body’s pilosebaceous units. Each unit consists of a sebaceous gland and a canal or follicle, which is lined with cells called keratinocytes and which contains a fine hair. Most numerous in the skin of the face, upper back, and chest, sebaceous glands manufacture an oily substance called sebum, which is released onto the skin’s surface through the follicle’s opening, or pore. All the constituents of the narrow follicle—the hair, sebum, and keratinocytes—may form a plug that prevents the sebum from reaching the surface of the skin through the pore.

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  • hydrothermal vents, 1:282–283 methane oxidizing and producing bacteria, 2:378–379 photosynthetic microorganisms, 2:437 sulfur cycle, 2:536 Winogradsky column, 2:601 Chemotaxis, 1:47 See also Bacterial movement Chemotherapy, 1:116–117, 2:416 Chermann, Jean-Claude, 2:400 Chiasmata, 1:105 Chickenpox, 2:572–573, 2:573 Childbed fever, 2:535 Chitin, 1:117–118, 1:232 Chlamydia infection, 2:512 eye infections, 1:213 pneumonia, 1:118 Chlamydia pneumoniae, 1:118 Chlamydia psittaci, 1:118, 2:445 Chlamydia trachomatis, 1:118, 1:123 Chlamydial pneumonia, 1:118 Chlamydomonas, 2:460 Chlamydomona...

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