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Chromosomes

Xem 1-20 trên 403 kết quả Chromosomes
  • Đề tài: Chromosome (Nhiễm sắc thể) trình bày các nội dung về lịch sử phát hiện; các sinh vật nhân sơ; trong sinh vật nhân chuẩn; số lượng nhiễm sắc thể trong các sinh vật khác nhau; kiểu nhân; sự sai lệch; liên kết ngoài.

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  • Applications of FISH The majority of FISH applications involve hybridization of one or two probes of interest as an adjunctive procedure to conventional chromosomal banding techniques. In this regard, FISH can be utilized to identify specific chromosomes, characterize de novo duplications or deletions, and clarify subtle chromosomal rearrangements. Its greatest utilization, however, is in the detection of microdeletions (see below). Though conventional cytogenetic studies can detect some microdeletions, initial detection and/or confirmation with FISH is essential.

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  • Maternal Age and Trisomy The association between increasing maternal age and trisomy is the most important etiologic factor in congenital chromosomal disorders. Among women under the age of 25, ~2% of all clinically recognized pregnancies are trisomic; by the age of 36, however, this figure increases to 10% and by the age of 42, to 33% (Fig. 63-5). This association between maternal age and trisomy is exerted without respect to race, geography, or socioeconomic factors and likely affects segregation of all chromosomes.

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  • Molecular Cytogenetics The introduction of FISH methodologies in the late 1980s revolutionized the field of cytogenetics. In principle, FISH is similar to other DNA-DNA hybridization methodologies. The probe is labeled with a hapten, such as biotin or digoxigenin, to allow detection with a fluorophore (e.g., FITC or rhodamine). After the hybridization step, the specimen is counter-stained and the preparations are visualized with a fluorescence microscope.

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  • Cytogenetic Testing in Prenatal Diagnosis The vast majority of prenatal diagnostic studies are performed to rule out a chromosomal abnormality, but cells may also be propagated for biochemical studies or molecular analyses of DNA. Three procedures are used to obtain samples for prenatal diagnosis: amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling (CVS), and fetal blood sampling. Amniocentesis is the most common procedure and is routinely performed at 15–17 weeks of gestation.

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  • Chapter 13 - Chromosomal rearrangements and changes in chromosome number. This chapter presents the following content: Rearrangements of DNA sequences, transposable genetic elements, rearrangements and evolution: a speculative comprehensive example, changes in chromosome number, emergent technologies: beyond the karyotype.

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  • Chromosome segregation in meiosis. A. In meiosis I, each of the 23 pairs of chromosomes finds its "partner," or homologue, and exchanges genetic material (recombines) with it. At metaphase, each homologous pair aligns on the equatorial plate; at anaphase, each member of the homologous pair segregates from its partner. Thus, at the end of meiosis I, each daughter cell contains 23 chromosomes, with each chromosome consisting of two sister chromatids. B. In meiosis II, each chromosome aligns on the metaphase plate, and at anaphase, each of the two sister chromatids divides from the other.

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  • Deletions involving the long arm of chromosome 22 (22q11) are the most common microdeletions identified to date, present in ~1/3000 newborns. VCF syndrome, the most commonly associated syndrome, consists of learning disabilities or mild mental retardation, palatal defects, a hypoplastic aloe nasi and long nose, and congenital heart defects (conotruncal defect).

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  • Chapter 4 - The chromosome theory of inheritance. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Chromosomes - The carriers of genes, mitosis: cell division that preserves chromosome number, meiosis: cell divisions that halve chromosome number, gametogenesis, validation of the chromosome theory.

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  • Chapter 12 - The Eukaryotic chromosome. This chapter describes the structure of eukaryotic chromosomes and how that structure affects function. The very long, linear DNA molecules are compacted with proteins in the chromosomes to fit into the nucleus. Several structures are essential for duplication, segregation, and stability.

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  • This chapter explain the chromosomal theory of inheritance and its discovery, explain why sex-linked diseases are more common in human males than females, distinguish between sex-linked genes and linked genes, explain how meiosis accounts for recombinant phenotypes, explain how linkage maps are constructed.

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  • This book has grown out of the requests by many users of Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1980) for information on the sources of the chromosome numbers cited in that work. During discussions about the publication of these data it became apparent that there is also a demand for a basic checklist of the taxa recognised in the Flora, and that these two requirements could readily be met in the same volume.

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  • The present study was carried out with the objective of developing new parental lines of hybrid rice based on chromosome single-segment substitution lines (SSSLs), on which the restorer and maintainer genes Rf3 (rf3) and Rf4 (rf4) were harbored in rice.

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  • This study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in 1994-1995. The influence of phosphate treatments (0, 1, 2,3 and 4g P2O5/pot) on meiotic chromosome pairing and the number of arms bound at the first metaphase (MI) in plants of diploid Senu variety of meaddow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) and its advanced generation (C6) autotetraploid (Tetra Senu) were studied.

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  • This study was carried out in glasshouse conditions in summer 2000. Metaphase I (MI) chromosome association and numbers of chromosome arms bound were studied in autotetraploid perennial (Lolium perenne L.) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and their interspecific hybrid plants (Lolium hybridum).

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  • Cattle provide a wide range of products and services to humans; thus the significance of conservation of livestock genetic resources is evident. We analyzed the genetic variability of five Y-chromosomal microsatellites in 395 bulls representing six cattle breeds (Polish Red, Polish Whitebacks, Polish Red-and-White, Polish Black-and-White, Polish Holstein Friesian, and Simmental).

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  • Chromosome numbers and karyotypes of some species belonging to the genus Artemisia L. (Asteraceae) were investigated, and chromosome counts of 12 species, 1 of which was counted for the first time, are presented with a thorough compilation of previously published data.

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  • In this study, all of the Stachys taxa determined were somatic with chromosome numbers counted as 2n = 30. This research has made a contribution to the taxonomic revision of the genus Stachys in Turkey

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  • (BQ) Part 1 of the document Introduce of genetic counseling and chromosome abnormalities (Fifth edition) has contents: Elements of Medical cytogenetics, chromosome analysis, autosomal ring chromosomes, robertsonian translocations, normal chromosomal variation,... and other contents. Invite you to refer.

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  • (BQ) Continued part 1, part 2 of the document Introduce of genetic counseling and chromosome abnormalities (Fifth edition) has contents: Disorders associated with aberrant genomic imprinting, reproductive cytogenetics, disorders of sex development, noxious agents,.... and other contents. Invite you to refer.

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