Closure computation

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  • This paper proposes a welcome hypothesis: a computationally simple device z is sufficient for processing natural language. Traditionally it has been argued that processing natural language syntax requires very powerful machinery. Many engineers have come to this rather grim conclusion; almost all working parers are actually Turing Machines (TM).

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  • Tree Adjoining G r a m m a r (TAG) is u formalism for natural language grammars. Some of the basic notions of T A G ' s were introduced in [Jo~hi,Levy, mad Takakashi I~'Sl and by [Jo~hi, l ~ l . A detailed investigation of the linguistic relevance of T A G ' s has been carried out in IKroch and Joshi,1985~. In this paper, we will describe some new results for TAG's, espe¢ially in the following areas: (I) parsing complexity of TAG's, (2) some closure results for TAG's, and (3) the relationship to Head grammars. ...

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  • Identify and describe the processes associated with the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK®) area called project communications management, which includes project communications planning, information distribution, performance reporting, and administrative closure.

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  • Having lived with the World Wide Web for twenty years, surfing the Web becomes a way of our life that cannot be separated. From latest news, photo sharing, social activities, to research collaborations and even commercial activities and government affairs, almost all kinds of information are available and processible via the Web. While people are appreciating the great invention, the father of the Web, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, has started the plan for the next generation of the Web, the Semantic Web....

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  • Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the branch of fluid dynamics providing a cost-effective means of simulating real flows by the numerical solution of the governing equations. The governing equations for Newtonian fluid dynamics, namely the Navier-Stokes equations, have been known for over 150 years. However, the development of reduced forms of these equations is still an active area of research, in particular, the turbulent closure problem of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations.

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  • What, then, makes for the distinction between mere experience and an experience? First, there are the related issues of unity and closure. Mere experience, Dewey notes, is continuous, often ‘inchoate’, and characterized by ‘distraction and dispersion’ (p. 35). In mere experience, ‘we are not concerned with the connection of one incident with what went before and what comes after. … Things happen, but they are neither definitely included nor decisively excluded; we drift’ (p. 40). ...

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  • Now that the information items Alice needs are all on her computer, rather than being spread across different web sites, it is easier for her to manage and organize them to suit her needs and preferences. Throughout this scenario, Alice does not need to perform any copy-and-paste opera- tion, or re-type any piece of data. All she has to do is click “Save” on the items she cared about and/or assign keywords to them. She does not have to switch to a different application—all inter- actions are carried out within her web browser which she is already familiar with.

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  • In each of these cases, the amount of work delegated to the DBMS is different. For the last case, the procedure delegates more work to the DBMS; for example, further processing is performed on the temporary table to create yet another temporary table or the final result set. The DBMS then either returns the final result set to the SAS session that is running the procedure or stores it in the database as a permanent table. The other general-use case that affects the amount of work that is delegated to the DBMS is when the data manipulation that a SAS...

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  • Given that social media applications and services have only recently become available, these high usage rates indicate a surprisingly rapid take up among large parts of the European population. These findings are confirmed by a recent IPTS assessment of social computing (Ala-Mutka et al. 2009b) and by figures from other independent sources. Nielsen Online (2009) estimates that, globally, 67% of Internet users accessed social networking sites or blogs in 2008.

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  • At the consensus conference Torleif Løvgren from Kongsberg presented his experiences from IT training for senior citizens at Kongsberg - in this report referred to as the Kongsberg model. The model is to a large extent based on voluntary work, idealism and extensive cooperation between different voluntary organisations and municipal bodies.

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  • The

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  • The preceding paragraph is not an indictment of application-oriented curricula per se, only of the particular way [N1] wants such a curriculum implemented: it allows the utilitarian impulse to overwhelm the basic ed- ucational mission, with the result that basic ideas and skills not directly related to the so-called real world problems often get left out. By yielding to the temptation of “doing just enough to get the problems solved”, the curriculum of [N1] ends up presenting a fragmented and amorphous version of mathematics.

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  • A new class of rugged fiber optic connectors has been introduced to speed residential connection in Fiber-To-The-Premises (FTTP) cabling networks. The connectors are strategically located in the distribution network to facilitate service connection, maintenance and reconfiguration of subscriber services. Connectors are typically staged at the street outside a residence to facilitate easy access and connection to the residence at a later date.

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  • Two distinct notions of closure, and relatedly, of unity, might be invoked in aesthetic contexts. The weak notion of closure is that of boundedness: an entity with clear limits separating it from other entities is, in this sense, closed. This sense of closure comes to mind when Dewey mentions, of mere experience, that its elements ‘are neither definitely included nor decisively excluded’ (p. 40).

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  • This chapter includes contents: Kleene Star Closure, Plus operation, recursive definition of languages, INTEGER, EVEN, factorial, PALINDROME, {anbn}, languages of strings (i) ending in a, (ii) beginning and ending in same letters, (iii) containing aa or bb (iv)containing exactly aa.

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  • This chapter includes contents: Regular expression of EVEN-EVEN language, Difference between a* + b* and (a+b)*, Equivalent regular expressions; sum, product and closure of regular expressions; regular languages, finite languages are regular, introduction to finite automaton, definition of FA, transition table, transition diagram.

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  • This chapter presents the following content: Examples of Kleene’s theorem part III (method 1) continued, Kleene’s theorem part III (method 2: Concatenation of FAs), examples of Kleene’s theorem part III (method 2: concatenation FAs) continued, Kleene’s theorem part III (method 3: closure of an FA), examples of Kleene’s theorem part III (method 3: Closure of an FA) continued.

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  • The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: NFA corresponding to union of FAs, example, NFA corresponding to concatenation of FAs, examples, NFA corresponding to closure of an FA, example.

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  • The following will be discussed in this chapter: NFA corresponding to closure of FA, examples, memory required to recognize a language, example, distinguishing one string from another, example, theorem, proof.

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  • A special method to manufacture metallic microstructures is SLM. It is one of the rare generative methods for metals and is normally taken into the list of rapid prototyping technologies. The technique is completely different than the abrasive techniques described so far.On a base platformmade of the desiredmetalmaterial, a thin layer of a metal powder is distributed. A focused laser beam is ducted along the structure lines given by a 3DCADmodel,which is controlled by a computer.With the laser exposure, themetal powder ismelted, forming a welding bead.

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