Control of metabolism

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  • Cell biology of carbohydrate metabolism: Regulation of metabolic pathways, glucose as a regulator of metabolism, a carbohydrate response element (ChoRE) consists of 2 E-box like elements separated by 5 nucleotides, metabolic control analysis,...

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  • Lecture Microbiology - Chapter 5: Essential concepts of metabolism. This chapter presents the following content: Metabolism, microbial metabolism, energy capture, enzymes control metabolic pathways, apoenzyme versus holoenzyme,...

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  • (bq) part 2 book "biology" has contents: an introduction to flowering plant form and function, muscular skeletal systems and locomotion; nutrition, digestion, and absorption; control of energy balance, metabolic rate, and body temperature; circulatory systems, endocrine systems, animal development, immune systems,...and other contents.

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  • HAVE YOU EVER LIFTED UP A BOARD that has been lying on a lawn for a few weeks and noticed that the grass growing underneath was much paler and spindlier than the surrounding grass? The reason this happens is that the board is opaque, keeping the underlying grass in darkness. Seedlings grown in the dark have a pale, unusually tall and spindly appearance. This form of growth, known as etiolated growth, is dramatically different from the stockier, green appearance of seedlings grown in the light (Figure 17.1). Given the key role of photosynthesis in plant metabolism, one might be tempted...

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  • THE CYTOKININS WERE DISCOVERED in the search for factors that stimulate plant cells to divide (i.e., undergo cytokinesis). Since their discovery, cytokinins have been shown to have effects on many other physiological and developmental processes, including leaf senescence, nutrient mobilization, apical dominance, the formation and activity of shoot apical meristems, floral development, the breaking of bud dormancy, and seed germination.

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  • MOST PEOPLE LOOK FORWARD to the spring season and the profusion of flowers it brings. Many vacationers carefully time their travels to coincide with specific blooming seasons: Citrus along Blossom Trail in southern California, tulips in Holland. In Washington, D.C., and throughout Japan, the cherry blossoms are received with spirited ceremonies. As spring progresses into summer, summer into fall, and fall into winter, wildflowers bloom at their appointed times.

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  • Obesity and its associated disorders, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, have now reached epidemic proportions in the Western world, resulting in dramatic increases in healthcare costs. Understanding the pro-cesses and metabolic perturbations that contribute to the expansion of adi-pose depots accompanying obesity is central to the development of appropriate therapeutic strategies.

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  • A gene cluster involved in maltodextrin transport and metabolism was identified in the genome of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, which encoded a maltodextrin-binding protein, three maltodextrin ATP-binding cassette transporters and five glycosidases, all under the control of a tran-scriptional regulator of the LacI-GalR family.

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  • Phospholipase D (PLD) plays amajor role in the activation of the neutrophil respiratory burst. However, the repertoire of PLD isoforms present in these primary cells, the precise mechanism of activation, andthe impact of cell priming on PLD activity and localization remain poorly defined. RT-PCR analysis showedthat both PLD1 andPLD2 iso-forms are expressedin human neutrophils, with PLD1 expressedat a higher level. Endogenous PLD1 was detected by immunoprecipitation andWestern blotting, andwas predominantly membrane-associated under control and primed/stimulated conditions....

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  • Meeting report A burst of energy in metabolic disease research Jaswinder K Sethi Address: Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QR, UK. E-mail: comment Published: 27 May 2004 Genome Biology 2004, 5:327 The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at http://genomebiology.

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  • (BQ) Continued part 1, part 2 of the document Clinical medicine presents the following contents: Malignant disease, palliative medicine and symptom control, rheumatology and bone disease, kidney and urinary tract disease, water, electrolytes and acid–base balance, diabetes mellitus and other disorders of metabolism;... and other contents.

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  • Chapter 6 - An introduction to metabolism. This chapter presents the following content: The chemistry of life is organized into metabolic pathways, organisms transform energy, the energy transformations of life are subject to two laws of thermodynamics, organisms live at the expense of free energy, ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions.

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  • An industrial clavulanic acid (CA) overproducer Streptomyces clavuligerus strain, namely DEPA, was engineered to further enhance its CA production. Single or multiple copies of ccaR, claR (pathway-specific activators), and cas2 (CA synthase) genes under the control of different promoters were introduced into this strain.

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  • (BQ) Continued part 1, part 2 of the document Systems biology and control theory has contents: A control-theoretic interpretation of metabolic control analysis, structural robustness of biochemical networks, robustness of oscillations in biological systems, a theory of approximation for stochastic biochemical processes,...and other contents. Invite you to consult the details.

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  • uclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can now be used to investigate the biochemical energetics of human tissues and organs noninvasively. The method already has increased our understanding of some muscle diseases, has provided information from muscle metabolism about whole-body functions, control, and hormonal status, has helped in the elucidation of hitherto unrecognized causes of disease, and yielded new ideas about the control of bioenergetics in vivo. Studies on the biochemistry of human brain, liver, heart, and kidney are just beginning.

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  • PHOTOSYNTHESIS PROVIDES the organic building blocks that plants (and nearly all other life) depend on. Respiration, with its associated carbon metabolism, releases the energy stored in carbon compounds in a controlled manner for cellular use. At the same time it generates many carbon precursors for biosynthesis. In the first part of this chapter we will review respiration in its metabolic context, emphasizing the interconnections and the special features that are peculiar to plants.

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  • The Hypothalamushypophysis- gonadal (HPG) axis is subject to both positive feed-forward and negative feedback regulation at several levels. At the level of the hypothalamus, early recognition of the pulsatile nature of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion led to the notion of a central ‘‘pulse generator”, the inherent oscillatory activity of which controls the secretory rhythm of GnRH neurons (Knobil, 1980).

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  • TI warrants performance of its products to the specifications applicable at the time of sale in accordance with TI’s standard warranty. Testing and other quality control techniques are utilized to the extent TI deems necessary to support this warranty. Specific testing of all parameters of each device is not necessarily performed, except those mandated by government requirements. In order to minimize risks associated with the customer’s applications, adequate design and operating safeguards must be provided by the customer to minimize inherent or procedural hazards. ...

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  • Geobiology is a highly cross-disciplinary field that explores the present and past relationships that life has with non-living matter. “Biosphere meets Geosphere” per- haps most parsimoniously describes the fundamental con- cept of Geobiology. In 1991, Peter Westbroek, a Dutch paleontologist and influential protagonist of Geobiology defined the field in a book entitled “Life as a Geological Force: Dynamics of the Earth”, thus motivating a new way of thinking in the geosciences.

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  • The efficient turnover of messenger RNA represents an important mecha-nism that allows the cell to control gene expression. Until recently, the mechanism of mRNA decay was mainly attributed to exonucleases, com-prising enzymes that degrade RNAs from the ends of the molecules.

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