Controlling drug release

Xem 1-13 trên 13 kết quả Controlling drug release
  • In an attempt to improve material properties used for oral administration, which is restricted by fast dissolution in the stomach, chitosan hydrogels were coated with cellulose dissolved in ionic liquid. Using insulin as a model compound, the properties of these cellulose-coated microparticles for the controlled release of drug were investigated. The results showed that the coated microparticles were more stable than those which were uncoated at low pH and suitable for oral delivery without requiring any harmful and sophisticated cross-linkage treatment.

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  • The purpose of this study is to synthesize and characterize poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether (mPEG) conjugated chitosan (CS), mPEG-CS, at different ratios of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) delivery (5-FU-loaded mPEG-CS). The chemical cross-linking of these polymers were prepared by using 4-Nitrophenyl chloroformate reagent. The obtained mPEG-CS was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy.

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  • For over 50 years, interest has been expressed in optimizing drug therapy through delivery system design. For many years this revolved around incorporating drugs into erodible or inert polymers, which then acted as platforms for controlled release, an approach that has been well reviewed in the literature.

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  • Products of nanotechnology are expected to revolutionize modern medicine, as evidenced by recent scientific advances and global initiatives to support nanotechnology and nanomedicine research. The field of drug delivery is a direct beneficiary of these advancements. Due to their versatility in targeting tissues, accessing deep molecular targets, and controlling drug release, nanoparticles are helping address challenges to face the delivery of modern, as well as conventional drugs.

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  • This handbook emphasizes the use of synthetic membranes for separations involving industrial or municipal process streams. Little will be said concerning the use of membranes in medical applications as in artificial kidneys or for controlled drug release. Most of the membrane processes are pressure driven. The notable exception to this is electrodialysis (ED) by which ions are separated under the influence of an electric field. In addition, the chapter on coupled transport covers processes which are driven under the influence of a concentration gradient....

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  • Discovery of a new chemical entity that exerts pharmacological effects for curing or treating diseases or relieving symptoms is only the first step in the drug developmental process. In the developmental cycle of a new drug, the delivery of a desired amount of a therapeutic agent to the target at a specific time or duration is as important as its discovery. In order to realize the optimal therapeutic outcomes, a delivery system should be designed to achieve the optimal drug concentration at a predetermined rate and at the desired location....

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  • Polymeric micelle, the self-assembly of block copolymers with core-shell architecture, is a promising nanocarrier for drug and gene delivery. There are several relevant properties in polymeric micelle as nanocarrier systems, such as longevity in blood circula-tion, tissue-penetrating ability, spatial and temporal controlled drug release, and reduced inherent toxicity of cytotoxic reagents.

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  • This chapter describes the physiological role and pathophysical consequences of histamine release and provides a summary of the therapeutic use of histamine H1-receptor antagonists. H2-receptor antagonists are discussed in detail in Chapter 37: Agents Used for Control of Gastric Acidity and Treatment of Peptic Ulcers and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the context of prevention and treatment of peptic ulcers, their principal therapeutic application.

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  • Despite the advances in the development of new drugs, a drug may never reach the target organ, or it may be difficult to achieve the necessary level of drug in the body. Large doses can result in serious side effects, and can harm normal cells and organs as well as diseased cells. Hence controlled release and the targeting of delivery systems must evolve in parallel to drug research.

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  • The polymeric microparticles using electrospray technique have been used effectively as the drug carrier, whereby controlled release of drug. The electrosprayed particles morphology and size dictated the degradation of polymer matrix, therefore they influenced the release profile from drug loaded microparticles.

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  • These unique characteristics plus the functionalities from the materials themselves impart nanofibers with a number of novel properties for applications in areas as various as biomedical engineering, wound healing, drug delivery and release control, catalyst and enzyme carriers, filtration, environment protection, composite reinforcement, sensors, optics, energy harvest and storage, and many others. More and more emphasis has recently been placed on large-scale nanofiber production, the key technology to the wide usages of nanofibers in practice....

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  • Developing fast high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods can improve work efficiency during research, development, or production of a drug substance or a drug product. HPLC is a key technique in all of these areas. Until recently, analysis times of greater than 30 minutes were common. Modern pharmaceutical R&D, with its high-throughput screening, demands high-throughput methods to deal with the large number of samples. To reduce production cycle time, fast HPLC methods are essential for on-line or at-line process control and for rapid release testing.

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  • Women usually produce one mature egg per menstrual cycle. Because IVF is so expensive, current clinical practice is to give women hormonal drugs to stimulate multiple eggs in one cycle, to increase their chances of pregnancy. For this process, women inject three different hormones over the course of four to six weeks to “shut down” their ovaries, “hyperstimulate” them, and to control the timing that the mature eggs will be released.

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