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Crop losses

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  • The aim of this research was to analyze the impact on unit crop cost of crop losses that occur during the pre-harvest and harvest periods. It is understood today that crop losses occurring during these periods have an impact on crop cost and a negative effect on profit.

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  • Crop losses caused by insects, pests, and pathogens remain one of the major problems in sustainable agriculture. Environmental and health concerns regarding the overuse of pesticides, and the impacts of climate change on epidemics are immediate pressing issues.

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  • The experimental research of the authors from 2003-2006 on the following agricultural products: Watermelon, sugarcane, cassava, groundnuts, maize and rice. The results show that post-harvest losses of agricultural products is very high: Watermelon 6.6 - 12.6%, sugarcane 1:46 to 3:26%, Wu 8.88 - 1.18%, rice 8:36 to 12:25%, 17:02% 13:33 Lac, San slices of 13:27 to 17:49% cassava flour and 5:17 to 8:22%.

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  • Since 1980, the principal form of crop loss assistance in the United States has been provided through the Federal Crop Insurance Program. The Federal Crop Insurance Act of 1980 was intended to replace disaster programs with a subsidized insurance program that farmers could depend on in the event of crop losses. Crop insurance was seen as preferable to disaster assistance because it was less costly and hence could be provided to more producers, was less likely to encourage moral hazard, and less likely to encourage producers to plant crops on marginal lands.

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  • Soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi cause heavy crop losses all over the world. With variable climate from region to region, most crops grown in India are susceptible to diseases caused by soil-borne fungal pathogens. Among tropical and subtropical land crops, groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oil seed crop, providing vegetable oil as human food and oil cake meal as animal poultry feed.

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  • As rates of deforestation and land degradation, and losses of biodiversity and ecosystem services, continue to rise globally, the international community is faced with the challenge of finding land use interventions that can mitigate or reduce the impact of these environmental issues. Agroforestry, the integration of trees in farming systems, has the potential for providing rural livelihoods and habitats for species outside formally protected lands, connecting nature reserves, and alleviating resourceuse pressure on conservation areas.

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  • Congress established a standing disaster program in the 2008 farm bill— the Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program. Under this program, Congress funded a $3.8 billion permanent trust fund and directed the Secretary of Agriculture to make crop disaster assistance payments to eligible farmers who suffer crop losses on or before September 30, 2011. USDA—through FSA—began making disaster payments under this program in early 2010 for crop losses incurred in 2008.

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  • After 15 years of development, Vietnam has built 49 concentrated industrial zones in 61 provinces and cities. However, the unemployment rate of households lost their land to build industrial zones get employment from the industrial zone is low. So why is the labor of the household failed career change process, including failure in the process of finding employment in the industrial and employment compensation from the account? This article is based on studying the effects of industrial employment to rural areas to clarify the issue....

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  • The observed differences between willingness to pay and willingness to accept have been labeled an “endowment effect”, intimating that the phenomena is due to loss- aversion to the domain of choices over bundles of goods and money (Thaler, 1980; Tversky and Kahneman, 1991;Camerer, Loewenstein and Prelec,2003). The theoretical idea is that an individual who owns a good anticipates a loss from the sale and, thus requires a higher payoff than the individual would pay to acquire the good if it were not owned (Kahneman 1991, Kahneman 1990, Knetsch 1989, Knetsch 1984).

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  • Lack of knowledge and understanding at the scientific, extension and farmer levels is the primary limitation to the effective management of Phytophthora diseases in Vietnam. The objectives of this project are to extend sustainable and effective disease control and management recommendations to a range of horticultural crops throughout Vietnam to reduce crop losses due to Phytophthora and to improve farmer incomes.

    pdf30p tam_xuan 02-03-2012 40 5   Download

  • One of the reasons private crop insurance markets have not developed is the relatively low demand for crop insurance. Despite large subsidies in the United States, crop insurance participation historically has been relatively low. Farmers and ranchers use a variety of risk management strategies to mitigate the risks they face (Harwood, Heifner, Coble, Perry, and Somwaru, 1999; U.S. GAO, 1999), many of which compete with crop insurance. These include futures and options markets, contracting, cultural practices that reduce crop loss (e.g.

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  • The nature of environmental challenges has changed considerably in recent decades. Nonetheless, the global nature of environmental problems has long been known, as issues such as pollution, loss of biodiversity, global warming, ozone depletion and tropical deforestation do not respect international borders. One can argue, however, that it is only in recent years that these problems have become widespread matters of concern among the general public. The issue of climate change was at the forefront of the debate on global environmental problems in 2007.

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  • A primary justification for government intervention has been the failure of private agricultural insurance markets (see, for example, Appel, Lord, and Harrington, 1999; Hazell, Pomerada, and Valdez, 1986; Goodwin and Smith, 1995). In a 1922 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) bulletin, Valgren describes the disastrous experiences of fire insurance companies that offered crop insurance in the Dakotas and Montana in 1917 and the early 1920s. Severe droughts caused widespread crop losses in those states.

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  • One of the key characteristics of agriculture is the inherent production risks facing producers from adverse weather, pests, and diseases. These risks have been used to justify government intervention in the form of disaster assistance payments, emergency loans, livestock feed assistance programs, crop insurance, and other subsidized assistance schemes. Yet, while government intervention to provide assistance has been widely supported in the United States, the form of assistance has been much debated.

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  • Some recent experiments support a claim that the observed differences between willingness to pay and willingness to accept are related to experimental procedures and have nothing to do with preference asymmetries (Plott and Zeiler (2003)) or are eliminated by trading experience (List, 2003). Older people are often presumed to be more conservative and more likely to avoid risk. If this is true, then it would seem natural to expect loss avoidance to be stronger in the older populations.

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  • The nematode may have been introduced into the United States several times during the late 1800s in soil imported from Asia for the purpose of obtaining bacteria to nodulate soybean roots. SCN can be spread by anything that moves soil: wind, water, animals (especially birds) and machinery. Documenting the economic impact of SCN is difficult because many producers suffer declining yields for several years without knowing that they have SCN.

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  • Insect pests and pathogens (fungi, bacteria and viruses) are responsible for severe crop losses. Insects feed directly on the plant tissues, while the pathogens lead to damage or death of the plant. Plants have evolved a certain degree of resistance through the production of defence compounds, which may be aproteic, e.g. antibiotics, alkaloids, terpenes, cyanogenic glucosides or proteic, e.g. chitinases,b-1,3-glu-canases, lectins, arcelins, vicilins, systemins and enzyme inhibitors.

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  • The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is one of the most important insect pests in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Thrips infestation is the main cause of vegetable crops losses in low polythene tunnels and plastic greenhouses.

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  • Considering current agricultural practices and certain indicators, it is impossible to comment on sustainability of these practices. Chemical fertilizers are among such unsustainable practices. Because of increasing mineral fertilizer costs and negative environmental impacts of these fertilizers, the interest in biological nitrogen fixation is increasing within the scope of sustainable agriculture (without significant yield losses).

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  • Nematodes are the principal animal parasites of plants, causing annual crop losses of more than US$100 billion worldwide. Conventional control measures against nematode infection include toxic nematicide application to soil, crop rotation practices, and classical breeding approaches.

    pdf8p sony2711 01-02-2019 9 0   Download

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