Current and frequency

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  • After four centuries a quote from Galileo Galilei is still the most effective way to introduce a Metrology book: “Measure what is measurable, and make measurable what is not so”. Every human activity needs an objective measurement and every global process should be supported by a common standard. There are several handbooks, tutorials and journals that focus on the basic concepts of metrology, the uncertainty theory and the international reference standards. Moreover, the engineering literature is awash with measurement methods for each specific field.

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  • Steady-state operation of a fusion power plant requires external current drive to minimize the power requirements, and a high fraction of bootstrap current is required. One of the external sources for current drive is lower hybrid current drive, which has been widely applied in many tokamaks. Here, using lower hybrid simulation code, we calculate electron distribution function, electron currents and phase velocity changes for two options of demonstration reactor at the launched lower hybrid wave frequency 5 GHz.

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  • This paper points out the deficiency in the current harmonic frequency estimation algorithm in power system. In order to improve the accuracy of detection and reduce the computational complexity, the study combined the ESPRIT algorithm with multistage Wiener filter (MSWF) recurrence to achieve fast estimation of harmonic frequency.

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  • Grammar: Chapter 5: The present continuous. Activities in progress: A. Use the present continuous for activities that are in progress (or happening) at the exact moment the speaker is talking. You can use time expressions such as now or right now to emphasize that an action is happening currently (and may end soon). For example: 1. Look! It is snowing. 2. She’s making dinner now. 3. Steve can’t come to the phone right now. He’s taking a bath.

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  • History of the Present Illness: Duration of chest pain. Location, radiation (to arm, jaw, back), character (squeezing, sharp, dull), intensity, rate of onset (gradual or sudden); relationship of pain to activity (at rest, during sleep, during exercise); relief by nitroglycerine; increase in frequency or severity of baseline anginal pattern. Improvement or worsening of pain. Past episodes of chest pain. Age of onset of angina.

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  • Multi-carrier modulation, in particular Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), has been successfully applied to a wide variety of digital communications applications over the past several years. Although OFDM has been chosen as the physical layer standard for a diversity of important systems, the theory, algorithms, and implementation techniques remain subjects of current interest. This is clear from the high volume of papers appearing in technical journals and conferences.

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  • In a normal alternating current power system, the voltage varies sinusoidally at a specific frequency, usually 50 or 60 hertz. When a linear electrical load is connected to the system, it draws a sinusoidal current at the same frequency as the voltage (though usually not in phase with the voltage). When a non-linear load, such as a rectifier, is connected to the system, it draws a current that is not necessarily sinusoidal. The current waveform can become quite complex, depending on the type of load and its interaction with other components of the system.

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  • Our intention in writing MRI: Basic Principles and Applications was to provide a book that would serve as a bridge between the theory and practical usage of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We minimized the use of intense mathematical formalism and attempted to show the underlying foundation for MRI as it is currently used. Our attempt was to provide a resource for those medical personnel who needed accurate and detailed information yet could not devote time to study an in-depth theoretical treatise....

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  • The information compiled in this report reflects evidence collected from WHP policies in high-income countries, primarily within the European and North American regions. The scarcity of information and case studies from low- and middle-income countries was highlighted as an important gap in the current knowledge that needs to be addressed. Despite the limits of the available evidence, all stakeholders are encouraged to develop and implement WHP policies and programmes tackling unhealthy diets and physical inactivity....

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  • Risk management has attracted increased attention in recent years. Many advisers have recently reevaluated, or are currently reevaluating, their organizational structures and other practices relating to risk management. In many cases, they are adopting more formal risk management practices. Fund boards also have been reevaluating their risk management oversight practices, including the structures and mandates of board committees and the format and frequency of board reports. Practices in the industry continue to evolve. ...

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  • We study weekly portfolio returns from 23 developed markets. We choose to study returns at a weekly frequency to avoid the problems caused by nonsyn- chronous trading around the world at higher frequencies. All returns are U.S. dollar denominated, and we calculate excess returns by subtracting the U.S. weekly T-bill rate, which is obtained from the Center for Research in Security Prices (CRSP) riskfree file. 1 Our selection of developed countries matches the countries currently in the Morgan Stanley Developed Country Index. Data for the United States are from Compustat and CRSP.

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  • Second, the model is consistent with multifactor volatility models or CGARCH e¤ects. Both endowment risk and sentiment risk are associated with instantaneous shocks associated with the idiosyncratic risk embedded in the Brownian motions present in the investors endowments. In contrast, solvency risk is associated with the binding of solvency constraints, and therefore it occurs at a lower frequency.

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  • This paper presents some results of fabrication and experiment of an electrical generator for sea wave energy. The electrical generator device is fixed on the bottom of the sea and works in the vertical direction of sea waves. The experiment results show that, for the received voltage and current, the power of the electrical generator is up to 300 W and operates stably at about 200 W during experiment at sea. The output voltage is at 220 VAC frequency 50 Hz and is a pure sine wave.

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  • Currently the most widely used machine for precision seeding of cotton and maize seed is vacuum type. The capture of seeds by vacuum plate and the release of seeds from the vacuum plate should be performed precisely without missing or doubling.

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  • Manipulating light by subwavelength resonators via plasmonic metasurface is currently studied intensively for various novel THz and optical applications. In this report, we present the fabrication of a simple plasmonic metasurface operating at infrared frequencies using the UV lithography and electron beam evaporation techniques.

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  • This paper presents a third order continuous time current mode RD modulator for WLAN 802.11b standard applications. The proposed circuit utilized feedback architecture with scaled and optimized DAC coefficients. At circuit level, we propose a modified cascade current mirror integrator with reduced input impedance which results in more bandwidth and linearity and hence improves the dynamic range. Also, a very fast and precise novel dynamic latch based current comparator is introduced with low power consumption.

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  • Currently, in Vietnam electricity market, hydropower plants still account for a large proportion approximately 38%. Thus, study on control problems of the hydropower plants plays an extremely important role. Load – frequency control is one of the most significant control problems. Major objectives of such a control strategy are to focus on maintaining the system frequency at a nominal value (50Hz in Vietnam) and the tie-line power interchange at a scheduled value.

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  • Croatia is currently developing the Strategy for the transition of digital terrestrial television to DVB-T2 standard and the assignment of the frequency spectrum at 700 MHz, i.e. the second digital dividend, for mobile services. The main goal of this Strategy is to make an additional part of RF spectrum (694-790 MHz) available for the mobile broadband services, but also to assure the competitiveness of the digital terrestrial television platform until 2030.

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  • Capacitive-resistive electric transfer (CRET) is a non-invasive therapeutic strategy that applies radiofrequency electric currents within the 400–600 kHz range to tissue repair and regeneration.

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