Database mechanism

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  • CRITICAL SKILL 1.1: Define a Database Database you say—now there's a word you hear all the time! In a nutshell, a database is an electronic collection of information designed to meet a handful of needs:
     Databases provide one-stop shopping for all your data storage requirements. The database contains any amount of data, from the small to the huge.
     Databases must provide mechanisms to retrieve data quickly as applications interact with their contents.

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  • Database you say—now there's a word you hear all the time! In a nutshell, a database is an electronic collection of information designed to meet a handful of needs:  Databases provide one-stop shopping for all your data storage requirements. The database contains any amount of data, from the small to the huge.  Databases must provide mechanisms to retrieve data quickly as applications interact with their contents.  Databases allow the sharing of corporate data such that personnel data is shared amongst one's payroll, benefits, and pension systems....

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  • Some features of a real world situation can be difficult to model using only the features of the E-R model that we have seen so far. • Some quite common concepts require extending the E-R model to incorporate mechanisms for modeling these features. Again, we won’t look at all of them, but rather an overview of some of the more important extensions.

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  • A Problem-Solution Approach Darl Kuhn, Sam Alapati, and Arup Nanda ..RMAN Recipes for Oracle Database 11g A Problem-Solution Approach Darl Kuhn, Sam Alapati, and Arup Nanda .RMAN Recipes for Oracle Database 11g: A Problem-Solution Approach Copyright © 2007 by Darl Kuhn, Sam Alapati, Arup Nanda All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording,

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  • his book is a comprehensive and easy-to-understand guide for using the Oracle Data Provider (ODP) version 11g on the .NET Framework. It also outlines the core GoF (Gang of Four) design patterns and coding techniques employed to build and deploy high-impact mission-critical applications using advanced Oracle database features through the ODP.NET provider. The book details the features of the ODP.NET provider in two main sections: “Basic,” covering the basics and mechanisms for data access via ODP.

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  • The code executed by the replica proxy for supporting Byzantine clients is presented in Figure 4. To be able to compare if the sequence of operations submitted initially is the same that is submitted at commit time, the coor- dinator also logs the operations and their results as they are executed (line 42). At commit time, if the received list differs from the log, the coordinator discards exe- cuted operations in the current transaction and executes operations in the received list, as any other replica.

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  • Established as a temporary mechanism or a transitory program, social funds were intended to transfer resources to those groups that were hardest hit by adjustment programs. In the last few years, they have become more like permanent poverty reduction programs. NGOs point out that, while the purpose of social funds is not to eliminate the struc- tural causes of poverty, it is possible for them to affect some of its symp- toms and manifestations.

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  • A summary of the TOE security functions can be found in chapter 1.3.4. A more detailed description of the security functions can be found in chapter 7, TOE Summary Specification. Please note that only the SQL Server 2008 database engine is addressed in this ST. Other related products of the SQL Server 2008 platform, such as Service Broker, provide services that are useful but are not central to the enforcement of security policies. Hence, security evaluation is not directly applicable to those other products. ...

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  • Databases are updated regularly, usually according to a fixed schedule, such as daily, weekly or monthly. Some databases are updated annually, or whenever there is a new version produced. Update frequencies are sometimes different from when articles appear in print versus online. A database noted as having an Update Frequency of “Archive” contains backfiles covering a specific time period. Current upates are added to a different file segment. For example, Dialog NewsRoom (NE04) is listed as “Archive” with data from 2004.

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  • Database server administrators use the dbo schema, so data they create has dbo in the dataset name. Any user who is a member of dbo (in other words, any user who is a database server administrator) is considered owner of the datasets in the dbo schema. When you altered the geodatabase-wide permissions for editor1 and manager1 in the buildings geodatabase, those permissions applied to the datasets in that geodatabase. For example, editor1 was granted read/write geodatabase-wide permissions on the buildings geodatabase so has read/write access to all data in that geodatabase.

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  • Software development is not a new idea. Ada Lovelace is said to have written the first computer program in the mid-nineteenth century for the Analytical Engine, the first mechanical computer prototyped by Charles Babbage. Much time has passed since then, and software development has grown into what is arguably one of the largest contributors to the development of our species. Designing good software is hard.

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  • In case of the control period (1961-1990), the initial and the lateral boundary conditions for the regional model are taken from (i) the ERA-40 reanalysis database (Uppala et al., 2005) using 1° horizontal resolution, compiled by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and (ii) the HadCM3 ocean-atmosphere coupled GCM using ~150 km as a horizontal resolution. For the validation of the PRECIS results CRU TS 1.2 (Mitchell & Jones, 2005) datasets were used.

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  • The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 0-07-143403-8 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-141741-9 All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners.

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  • Out of the initial sample of 303 restating firms identified from news reports, 216 firms are listed on Standard & Poor’s Compustat database. Out of those, we were able to find a control firm for 185 firms.24 For each of these 185 restating firms, we tried to obtain detailed information on the nature and characteristics of the restatement by reading the relevant SEC filings (Forms 10K, 10K-A, 10Q, and 10Q-A). For 10 firms, despite the initial news reports, we could not find any indication of a restatement in these filings.

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  • One of several current trends in distributed database system de- sign is a move away from supporting traditional ACID database transactions. Some systems, such as Amazon’s Dynamo [13],Mon- goDB [24], CouchDB [6], and Cassandra [17] provide no transac- tional support whatsoever. Others provide only limited transaction- ality, such as single-row transactional updates (e.g. Bigtable [11]) or transactions whose accesses are limited to small subsets of a database (e.g. Azure [9], Megastore [7], and the Oracle NoSQL Database [26]).

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  • The concept of an SQL user-defined function (UDF) is important for understanding SAS In-Database processing because it is the very mechanism that enables work from SAS programs to be executed inside the DBMS. A UDF is simply a packaged routine that can be invoked from SQL statements. Most DBMSs provide a framework for packaging code into executable modules, storing them inside the database, and making them available to clients of the DBMS. In short, UDFs make it possible to extend the SQL semantics implemented by the DBMS.

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  • In traditional SAS programs, PROCS are called as part of a workflow that usually includes SAS DATA steps along with PROC steps, which invoke SAS procedures. For example, a very basic SAS program includes a DATA step that creates the SAS data set from raw data files and a PROC step that invokes an appropriate SAS procedure to process the SAS data set. A PROC invocation typically takes one or more tables as input and produces a new table as output. Various programming options and control statements can also be specified on the PROC invocation. These dictate how the PROC...

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  • Although the vision of P2P systems is grand, the technical challenges associated with them are immense, and as a result the realization of the vision has been elusive. Because the membership in the system is ad-hoc and dynamic, it is very difficult to predict or reason about the location and quality of the system’s resources. For example, the placement of data in content-sharing systems is often na¨ ıve: data placement is largely demand driven, with little regard given to network bandwidth, load, or historical trustworthiness of the peer on which the data is placed.

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  • These limitations arise because the P2P world is lacking in the areas of semantics, data transformation, and data relationships, yet these are some of the core strengths of the data management community. Queries, views, and integrity constraints can be used to express relationships between existing objects and to define new objects in terms of old ones. Complex queries can be posed across multiple sources, and the results of one query can be materialized and used to answer other queries.

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  • We define the data placement problem for a P2P system as follows. Assume we are given a set of cooperating nodes connected by a network (typically, but not necessarily, the Internet) that has limited bandwidth on each link. Nodes know about and exchange data with a collection of participating peers, and they may serve any or all of four roles. The first of these is a data origin, which provides original content to the system and is the authoritative source of that data.

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