Diffractive optics

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  • Part 2 book “An introduction to x- ray physics, optics, and applications” has contents: Compton scattering, photoelectric absorption, absorption spectroscopy, imaging, and detection, refractive and reflective optics, single-crystal and three- dimensional diffraction, diffraction optics,… and other contents.

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  • The 21st century is said to be a photon-century. People meet contemporary optics (holography, as well) applications everywhere. It would be appropriate to increase the common education level in this field for people to be able to understand new surrounding technologies, entering our everyday lives. Optics serves as an important part of many scientific experimental methods. This way, such information could be useful also for researchers without a professional optical education.

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  • In this paper we review our works in the field of nonlinear optics in waveguide arrays (WAs) and photonic nanowires. We first focus on the new equation governing light propagation in optical fibers with sub-wavelength cores which simultaneously takes into account (i) the vector nature of the electromagnetic modes inside fibers, (ii) the strong dispersion of the nonlinearity inside the spectral body of the pulse, (iii) and the full variations of the vector mode profiles with frequency.

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  • In this work we report a hydrothermal approach for synthesis of zinc stannate (Zn2SnO4) nanocrystals. Our research focused on the effect of the molar ratio of initial chemicals, reaction temperature and reaction duration on the phase composition and the fluorescence properties. Structural and optical properties of the final products were investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the Zn2SnO4 nanocrystals possess face-centered cubic crystal structure. Raman scattering spectra exhibit two characteristic vibrational modes of Zn2SnO4 crystals.

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  • In this report, the ZnO nanostructure films have been deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique (USP) on fluorine doped tinoxide (FTO) substrate using zinc acetate and aqueous 2-propanol as reactants. The effects of solution spray rate on structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanostructure films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-Vis measurements. ZnO films were crystallized in the hexagonal wurtzite phase and preferential orientation changed with changing of spray rate.

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  • Transmission measurements were performed to examine the optical properties of the films; the absorption coefficient and the optical band gap of the films were calculated by transmission spectra. The absorption spectra of the films showed that this compound is a direct band gap one and its gap varied between 1.30 - 1.78eV. Those thin films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction in order to understand the effect of layers structure on their optical properties.

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  • Ads for one Macintosh computer bragged that it could do an arithmetic calculation in less time than it took for the light to get from the screen to your eye. We find this impressive because of the contrast between the speed of light and the speeds at which we interact with physical objects in our environment. Perhaps it shouldn’t surprise us, then, that Newton succeeded so well in explaining the motion of objects, but was far less successful with the study of light.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "The physics of vibrations and waves" has contents: Waves in more than one dimension, fourier methods, waves in optical systems, interference and diffraction, wave mechanics, non linear oscillations and chaos, non linear waves, shocks and solitons.

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  • Zinc aluminate - alumina (ZnAl2O4/Al2O3) systems doped with Cr3+ different concentrations were synthesized by sol-gel method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra. The results showed that Cr3+ dopant concentration had a significant effect on the lattice constants of ZnAl2O4/Al2O3 composite and their luminescence characteristics.

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  • The near infrared-emitting Zn2SiO4 powders were produced by high-energy planetary ball milling of ZnO and SiO2 powders followed by annealing in air environment and at different temperatures. The surface morphology, crystal structure, chemical composition and optical properties of the obtained samples were investigated by means of field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements (PL) at room temperature.

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  • The optical properties of gold nanoparticles suspension were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Maximum absorbance wavelengths (λmax) for gold nanoparticles are ∼ 518-524 nm with the size of 12-25 nm. The size of gold nanoparticles decreases with increasing concentration of sodium citrate. Besides, the morphology of gold nanoparticles has spherical shape with face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline structure.

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  • Anatase TiO2 powders doped with different amounts of Cu2+ ions (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 4.0 mol%) were successfully synthesized by sol-gel method from precursors of TiCl4, (CH3COO)2Cu. Effect of Cu2+ concentrations on the structural and optical properties of TiO2 host was investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and diffuse reflection spectroscopy. The XRD analysis showed that the doped samples exhibit anatase single phase at annealing temperature 600 oC.

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  • Lithography, the fundamental fabrication process of semiconductor devices, is playing a critical role in micro- and nano-fabrications and the revolution in high density integrated circuits. Traditional optical lithography (photolithography) including contact and project photolithography has contributed significantly to the semiconductor device advancements.

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  • Since the First International Congress on Liquid Crystals (Lcs), held at Kent State University, OH, USA, in 1965, the implications of these systems associated with various aspects of telecommunications, laser, display, automobile, aerospace technologies, thermo-optics, medicine and biology have been the subject of considerable debate among researchers, scientists and engineers. Indeed, LCs, being a unique mesomorphic phase of matter, combine properties of both solids (long-range orientation order, manifestations of Bragg diffraction, etc.) and liquids (fluidity, viscosity, etc.).

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  • Conventional optical instruments make use of light that is transmitted between different locations in the form of beams that are collimated, relayed, focused, or scanned by mirrors, lenses, and prisms. Optical beams diffract and broaden, but they can be refocused by the use of lenses and mirrors. Although such beams are easily obstructed or scattered by various objects, this form of free-space transmission of light is the

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  • PROPAGATION OF LIGHT IN FREE SPACE A. Correspondence Between the Spatial Harmonic and the Plane Wave B. Transfer Function of Free Space C. Impulse-Response Function of Free Space OPTICAL FOURIER TRANSFORM A. Fourier Transform in the Far Field B. Fourier Transform Using a Lens DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT A. Fraunhofer Diffraction *B. Fresnel Diffraction IMAGE FORMATION A. Ray-Optics Description of Image Formation B. Spatial Filtering C. Single-Lens Imaging System HOLOGRAPHY

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  • Diffraction When light passes an edge, it will deviate from rectilinear propagation. This phenomenon (which is a natural consequence of the wave nature of light) is known as diffraction and plays an important role in optics. The term diffraction has been conveniently defined by Sommerfeld as ‘any deviation from rectilinear paths which cannot be interpreted as reflection or refraction’. A rigorous theory of diffraction is quite complicated. Here we develop expressions for the diffracted field based on Huygens’ principle of secondary spherical wavelets.

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  • Computerized Optical Processes For almost 30 years, the silver halide emulsion has been first choice as the recording medium for holography, speckle interferometry, speckle photography, moir´ and optical e filtering. Materials such as photoresist, photopolymers and thermoplastic film have also been in use. There are two main reasons for this success. In processes where diffraction is involved (as in holographic reconstruction), a transparency is needed. The other advantage of film is its superior resolution.

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  • The structural, morphological and optical properties of CBD deposited CdS thin films have been studied by varying the processing parameters and the Cd/S ratio of the starting precursors in order to better understand the growth conditions. The films were characterized by Xray diffraction, SEM, Raman, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD patterns show that asdeposited CdS films were polycrystalline. The grain size are increasing with increasing the Cd/S ratio and/or the deposition time.

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  • Pure and Co-doped NiTiO3 nanocrystalline powders were prepared by the sol-gel method. The effect of Co2+ doping on structural, optical and magnetic properties of NiTiO3 was investigated by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis absorption, Raman spectroscopy and vibration samples magnetometer.

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