Diffusive gradients

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  • This chapter presents the following content: Cellular membranes are fluid mosaics of lipids and proteins, membranes structure results in selective permeability, passive transport in diffusion of a substance across a membrane with no energy investment, active transport uses energy to move solutes against their gradients, bulk transport across the plasma membrane occurs by exocytosis and endocytosis.

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  • Identifying the interactions between proteins and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is of great importance to decipher the functional mechanisms of lncRNAs. However, current experimental techniques for detection of lncRNA-protein interactions are limited and inefficient.

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  • A numerical investigation of turbulent swirling flows through an abrupt expansion tube is reported. The TEFESS code, based on a staggered Finite Volume approach with the standard kε model and first-order numerical schemes built-in, was used to carry out all the computations. The code has been modified in the present work to incorporate the ASM and two second-order numerical schemes.

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  • The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial activity and antioxidant activity and anticancer activity of different five extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli Stem. Plant roots were extracted in different five solvents viz. Hexane, Chloroform, Methanol, Water and Methanol: Water (90:10) through Soxtherm according to polarity gradients. Aiming to investigate antimicrobial activities, agar well diffusion method was followed using five pathogenic bacteria and five fungi as test organisms.

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  • Nitrophenols (such as o-nitrophenol (ONP), p-nitrophenol (PNP), and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)) are priority environmental pollutants. Their toxicity is pH dependent, and these molecular species of nitrophenols exhibit higher toxicity than their anionic counterparts. Herein, for the first time, a method for the in situ measurement of nitrophenols in acidic industrial wastewater was developed using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) with lignocellulose hazelnut shell-derived activated carbons (HSACs) as the binding agents. Nylon membranes (0.1 lm rated) with diffusion coefficients of (2.

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  • The porous medium equation arises in different applications to model diffusive phenomena. In this paper, we obtain several gradient estimates for some porous medium type equations on smooth metric measure space with N-Bakry-Emery Ricci tensor bounded from below. In particular, we improve and generalize some current gradient estimates for the porous medium equations.

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  • Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) have been used for the assessment of Zn phytoavailability. Phosphorus is of particular interest in soils having Zn toxicity because of the Zn–P interaction. A greenhouse study was carried out to assess the influence of different P rates on the Zn phytoavailability to sorghum-Sudan grass (Sorghum vulgare var. sudanese) in soil systems by DGT.

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  • Microdialysis is a very useful sampling tool that can be used in vivo to acquire concentration variations of protein - unbound molecules located in interstitial or extracellular spaces. This technique relies on the passive diffusion of substances across a dialysis membrane driven by a concentration gradient.

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  • Advection is the transport of dissolved solute mass present in groundwater due to the bulk flow (movement) of that groundwater. Advection alone (with no dispersion or reactive processes occurring) would cause a non-reactive solute to advect (move) at the mean groundwater pore velocity. All solutes undergo advection, however, reactive solutes are subject to influences by other processes detailed below. Molecular diffusion is the movement of solute ions in the direction of the con- centration gradient from high towards low concentrations. It effects all solutes.

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