Direct measurements

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  • Perhaps quantum mechanics is viewed as the most remarkable development in 20th century physics. Each successful theory is exclusively concerned about "results of measurement". Quantum mechanics point of view is completely different from classical physics in measurement, because in microscopic world of quantum mechanics, a direct measurement as classical form is impossible. Therefore, over the years of developments of quantum mechanics, always challenging part of quantum mechanics lies in measurements.

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  • Thermal noise from optical coatings is a growing area of concern, and overcoming limits to the sensitivity of high-precision measurements by thermal noise is one of the greatest challenges faced by experimental physicists. In this timely book, internationally renowned scientists and engineers examine our current theoretical and experimental understanding. Beginning with the theory of thermal noise in mirrors and substrates, subsequent chapters discuss the technology of depositing coatings and state-of-the-art dielectric coating techniques used in precision measurement.

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  • Distributional word similarity is most commonly perceived as a symmetric relation. Yet, one of its major applications is lexical expansion, which is generally asymmetric. This paper investigates the nature of directional (asymmetric) similarity measures, which aim to quantify distributional feature inclusion. We identify desired properties of such measures, specify a particular one based on averaged precision, and demonstrate the empirical benefit of directional measures for expansion.

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  • Our interest in the measurement of air and water flow is timeless. Knowledge of the direction and velocity of air flow was essential information for all ancient navigators, and the ability to measure water flow was necessary for the fair distribution of water through the aqueducts of such early communities as the Sumerian cities of Ur, Kish, and Mari near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers around 5,000 B.C. Even today, the distribution of water among the rice patties of Bali is the sacred duty of authorities designated the ÒWater Priests.Ó...

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  • In 1961 the NCRP issued NCRP Report No. 28, A Manual of Radioactivity Procedures, which was published as the National Bureau of Standards Handbook 80. The report came to be one of the definitive works in the area of radioactivity measurements. As the development of new techniques, procedures, and equipment made parts of the Report obsolescent, the NCRP recognized the need to update and extend the document.

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  • The study presented in this book is a direct response to the needs for defining and registering criminal and judicial data on the European level. Based upon work done by the European Sourcebook experts group in creating the European Source- book of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics (ESB), the project intended to improve and complement the standards developed so far for definitions and statistical registration in four fields, in order to contribute to the picture of criminal justice in Europe. It utilized questionnaires filled by an established European network....

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  • This paper presents the calculations using LITPACK models, aiming to select the restoration solution for Cua Tung beach, severely eroded in recent years. The results are just the preliminary, but they are useful to direct the optimal measures to bring the beach back to its original state serving the social and economic development in Quang Tri province. Keywords: MIKE, LITPACK, erosion, cross-sections, sediment, coastline. 1. Introduction∗ Cua Tung beach of Quang Tri province was one of the most beautiful ones, attracting many...

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  • About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

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  • MapReduce has been proven as a technique for high-scale data analysis by Internet leaders such as Google and Yahoo. Greenplum gives enterprises the best of both worlds—MapReduce for programmers and SQL for DBAs—and will execute both MapReduce and SQL directly within Greenplum’s Parallel Dataflow Engine (Figure 10), which is at the heart of the database. Greenplum MapReduce enables programmers to run analytics against petabyte-scale datasets stored in and outside of Greenplum Database.

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  • The relevance of context in disambiguating natural language input has been widely acknowledged in the literature. However, most attempts at formalising the intuitive notion of context tend to treat the word and its context symmetrically. We demonstrate here that traditional measures such as mutual information score are likely to overlook a significant fraction of all co-occurrence phenomena in natural language. We also propose metrics for measuring directed lexical influence and compare performances.

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  • In this paper, a method to reproduce realistic driving feeling and improve the returnability of steer-by-wire systems (SBW) is proposed by measuring the roadwheel motor's current directly. The key contribution presented here is a novel method to recreate the driving feeling in term of force feedback with simpie and cheap current sensors. A current sensor is used to fully measure the steering torque on the rack of steering mechanism. This measured steering torque therefore, includes the overall effects of road conditions, aligning moments, tire properties and so on.

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  • Prof Yoswa Dambisya (University of Limpopo/EQUINET) scoped the Consultation over the three days, emphasising the links between activities in Day One to subsequent discussions. Day One would focus on country policies, positions and plans, with a view to identifying common ground, common challenges and common approaches. He encouraged delegates to ask: What can we do together, and what do we differently? He asked delegates to find ways of pulling in the same direction, in the Kenyan spirit of “Harambee”.

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  • This paper proposes a framework for training Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to optimize multivariate evaluation measures, including non-linear measures such as F-score. Our proposed framework is derived from an error minimization approach that provides a simple solution for directly optimizing any evaluation measure. Specifically focusing on sequential segmentation tasks, i.e. text chunking and named entity recognition, we introduce a loss function that closely reflects the target evaluation measure for these tasks, namely, segmentation F-score. ...

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  • This paper proposes the “Hierarchical Directed Acyclic Graph (HDAG) Kernel” for structured natural language data. The HDAG Kernel directly accepts several levels of both chunks and their relations, and then efficiently computes the weighed sum of the number of common attribute sequences of the HDAGs. We applied the proposed method to question classification and sentence alignment tasks to evaluate its performance as a similarity measure and a kernel function. The results of the experiments demonstrate that the HDAG Kernel is superior to other kernel functions and baseline methods. ...

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  • This chapter extends our study of management control by explaining how standard costs are used by managers to control costs. It demonstrates how to compute direct materials, direct labor, and variable overhead variances. The chapter also defines some nonfinancial performance measures that are frequently used by companies.

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  • The atmospheric molecule density profile is directly derived from the correction-range lidar signal. The temperature profile is deduced from the molecular density profile based on the assumptions of the hydrostatic equilibrium and the ideal-gas law. Lidar measurements show good agreement with the molecular density and the temperature profiles from the MSISE-90 atmospheric model. Maximum errors of the density and temperature are found to be ±0.9% and ±3.4 K, respectively. The position and the temperature of the stratopause in Hanoi are determined to be about 49 km and 270 K.

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  • In this paper an idea for crack detection of a multi-cracked beam-like structure by analyzing the vibration measured directly from the vehicle is presented. The crack model is adopted from fracture mechanics. The dynamic response of the bridgevehicle system is measured directly from the moving vehicle. When the vehicle moves along the structure, the dynamic response of the vehicle is distorted by the cracks at their locations.

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  • The explicit secular equations and the approximate formulas for the velocity derived in this paper are useful for analyzing the effect of the material properties and the orientation of the fiber direction on the Rayleigh wave velocity, especially they are powerful tools for solving the inverse problem: determining the material parameters from the measured values of the velocity.

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  • After completing this chapter you should be able to: Distinguish between direct and indirect expenses and identify bases for allocating indirect expenses to departments; explain controllable costs and responsibility accounting; analyze investment centers using return on assets, residual income, and balanced scorecard; analyze investment centers using profit margin and investment turnover.

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  • The objective of this study was to investigate whether or not AaGroEL communicates with T cells directly. To do this, sorted cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with AaGroEL for 48 h. Flow cytometry was used to measure soluble and intracellular cytokine expression in the cell cultures and detect TLR2 expression on the surface of T cells.

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