Drivers of parasitoid

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  • Empirical evidence regarding international relative prices at the consumer level suggests that arbitrage in international markets is not rapid and that these markets are highly segmented. In fact, even markets for traded goods appear to be highly segmented internationally: In the data, both real exchange rate movements and deviations from the law of one price for traded goods are large and persistent.

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  • Overall, our analysis can be understood as one of the first cross-country empirical studies on the determinants of bank fees and as a contribution to the literature testing the contradictory empirical predictions of the SCP and ES hypotheses regarding the influence of concentration on prices in the banking industry.

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  • For all its unique and novel aspects, social media is simply another method by which individuals and entities interact and communicate. In the insurance context, these individuals and entities include insurance companies, their employees, appointed producers, consumers, potential consumers and regulators. Thus, this document is intended to both educate these various groups and provide guidance to regulators, insurance companies and producers for addressing various social media concerns.

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  • Finally, mobile element based markers are expected to be co-dominant. However, despite the fact that they are extremely useful for population genetics, all mobile element based markers have the same drawback: difficultly of data interpretation and uncertainty about the true nature of the polymorphism. Specifically, the question may arise as to whether differences in banding patterns are due to the absence or presence of retrotransposons, or are caused by some other mechanism, e.g. indels or restriction site loss.

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  • Attanasio and Lechene (2002) estimate Engel curves using municipality wage as an instrument for consumption. They find more reasonable results than when household income is used as an instrument. We follow them and use municipality wage as an instrument for total consumption. This obviously precludes the introduction of community fixed effects. In this case the main identification assumption is that municipality wage is not correlated with the error term once the effect of other covariates have been taken into account.

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  • As an example, suppose an insurer wrote a $400 commercial liability policy lasting one year, effective October 1, 2000. By December 31, 2000, only one quarter of the policy term would have expired, so under a “deferral-matching” approach only one quarter, i.e., $100, of the premium should be recognized as income. These deferral-matching approaches generally utilize an account known as “written premiums”. Written premiums for a policy during a reported period are generally defined as the amount of premium charged for that policy during the reporting period.

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  • At the end of this year, governments will gather in Durban, South Africa, for the next round of United Nations negotiations to advance global action on climate change. In June 2012, the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) will seek to secure new and comprehen- sive commitments to sustainable development. This publication aims to support the efforts leading up to Rio+20, as well as the activities, processes, commitments and partnerships that flow from it.

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  • It is a fact that apart from individuals many large companies and banks invest in MFs. Investments during 2000-01 in MF units (including UTI) by 4,752 companies and banks covered in the Prowess corporate database of CMIE worked out to almost 16,700 crores. Though direct comparisons are not appropriate, this amount is equivalent to about two-thirds of total value of MF investments covered in Table-V. The amount covered in Table-V is also very close to the share of equity in net assets of MFs arrived by us. In a sense, quite a high proportion of...

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  • Included in the SME interest margin charged by banks is an element of price that reflects the probability, from the banks’ experience and data, that some of its SME customers will not be able to repay the debt. The methodology and calculations used to determine the cost associated with the risk of lending are set out under international rules by the Basel Regulatory Framework4 . Regulators also give guidance to banks with regard to the buffers needed to protect banks in the event of shocks to the financial system.

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  • It is therefore recommended that, in addition to these checks, the oxygen failure alarm must be checked on a weekly basis by disconnecting the oxygen hose whilst the oxygen flowmeter is turned on, and a written record kept. In addition to sounding an alarm, which must sound for at least 7 s, oxygen failure warning devices are also linked to a gas shut-off device. Anaesthetists must be aware of both the tone of the alarm and also which gases will continue to flow on the particular model of anaesthetic machine in use....

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  • The data confirm the expected role of population and income. Early- and middle-adopting DMAs had, on average, five times larger populations and 24% larger per capita incomes than late- adopting DMAs. After controlling for log population and income, however, differences between early and late adopters appearmuch more idiosyncratic. Indeed, in regressions controlling for log pop- ulation and income, F-tests show no statistically significant re- lationship between television adoption category and percent high school educated, median age, or percent nonwhite at the DMA level.

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  • More recently, Granger (1986) and Johansen and Juselius (1990) proposed to determine the existence of long-term equilibrium among selected variables through cointegration analysis, paving the way for a (by now) preferred approach to examining the economic variables-stock markets relationship. A set of time-series variables are cointegrated if they are integrated of the same order and a linear combination of them is stationary. Such linear combinations would then point to the existence of a long-term relationship between the variables.

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  • Until the HIV/AIDS epidemic, mortality levels were expected to continue to decline in all regions. However, this tendency has been reversed in coun- tries where HIV/AIDS is most prevalent, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Life expectancy at birth is lower in the developing regions than in the more developed regions but it is projected to increase in both less and least develop- ing countries. This is dependent on successful implementation of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs and on other health interventions.

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  • Monitoring the outcome of tuberculosis treatment and understanding the specific reasons for unsuccessful treatment outcome are important in evaluating the effectiveness of tuberculosis control program. This study investigated tuberculosis treatment outcomes and predictors for unsuccessful treatment outcome in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. Methods: Medical records of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients registered from September 2009 to June 2011 in 15 districts of Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, were reviewed.

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  • The dehesa is an ancient agrosilvopastoral system created by farmers to raise livestock, mainly on private lands. This system is highly appreciated by society and enjoys legal protection of the authorities because it is rich in biodiversity, a home to critically endangered species (Iberian lynx, imperial eagle and black vulture); a significant carbon sink; ethnologically and anthropologically valuable (culture and traditions); and is known for its scenic value.

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  • The web in recent years has experienced an explosion in the number of devices users employ to access services. A single user may access a certain service using multiple devices. Most services allow clients to access the service through a broker. The client is then forced to interact with the service via this broker throughout the duration that it is using the service. If the broker fails, the client is denied servicing till such time that the failed broker recovers.

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  • Roger-Mark De Souza is the technical director of the population, health, and environment program at the Population Reference Bureau. His responsibilities include designing, managing and implementing policy research, capacity building, technical assistance, and media projects in developing countries. De Souza holds graduate degrees from the George Washington University and the University of the West Indies. John S. Williams, a demographer at the Population Reference Bureau, specializes in population, environment, and community programs.

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  • Neither source of performance is particularly correlated with the four Fama-French benchmarks, indicating that the private skills identified by these predictability-based strategies are based on characteristics of funds that are heretofore undocumented by the mutual fund literature. The remainder of this paper proceeds as follows. Section 2 sets forth an econometric framework for studying investments in mutual funds when business cycle variables may predict future returns. Section 3 describes the data used in the empirical analysis, and Section 4 presents the findings.

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  • Bond funds, which accounted for €373 billion of Irish IFs by shares/units in issue, experienced inflows of €12 billion and positive revaluations of €4.2 billion, amid generally increasing bond prices. This continues a longer term trend of significant inflows into bond funds, which comprised 42 per cent of Irish IFs by end-Q3 2012, compared with 24 per cent at end-Q1 2010.

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  • The economic reforms implemented since the signing of the GPA have borne positive results for the economy. Real GDP grew by about 6% in 2009 and is estimated to have grown by 9% in 2010. The adoption of the multi-currency regime along with the tightening of fiscal policy stance through the implementation of a cash-based budget system has helped Zimbabwe to bring down inflation to the commendable level of 3.0% by end-April 2011. In the medium term, Zimbabwe’s prospects and performance will be largely determined by political developments and how these impact the economy.

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