Epidemiology of cardiac

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  • We, the editors of this book, both have a long association with Dorothea Orem—Susan Taylor since 1976 and Kathie Renpenning since 1983. Collaboration between the two of us began in 1983 at the instigation of Orem and continues to this day through theory development activities, writing and publishing, and giving presentations in North America, South America, Asia, and Europe. As we have worked with Orem and learned of her theoretical and conceptual work, we also got to know her personally and were privileged to have access to her working papers and presentations.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 of the document Cardiac resynchronization therapy presents the following contents: Epidemiology of heart failure, pathobiology of left ventricular dyssynchrony, determinants of remodeling in systolic heart failure, summary of all large randomized trials, cardiac resynchronization therapy in special populations,...

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  • The impetus to provide a seventh edition of Cardiac Drug Therapy was generated by the positive comments received from readers worldwide, and from favorable reviews of earlier editions. The seventh edition updates and revises the sixth edition in several respects. In particular, the text includes: Six new chapters that deal with ongoing important controversies regarding the use of several widely used cardiac drugs. Controversies have arisen regarding the use of beta blockers for the treatment of hypertension.

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  • Cardiothoracic surgical nursing has undergone immense change over the past decade, owing in part to professional, economic and societal changes. The profile of patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery has also changed as cardiothoracic surgery is performed upon the more elderly, the high-risk or those with co- morbidity. Although previously considered at too high a risk for surgery, improved surgical techniques, pharmacology and pre- and post-operative care have resulted in a successful outcome for many patients and a return to an improved quality of life....

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  • Calculate the Nernst equilibrium potential for sodium, potassium, and calcium ions given their intracellular and extracellular concentrations. 3. Describe how changing the concentrations of sodium, potassium, and calcium ions inside and outside the cell affect the resting membrane potential in cardiac cells. 4. Explain why the resting potential is near the equilibrium potential for potassium and the peak of an action potential approaches the equilibrium potential for sodium. 5.

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  • Cardiothoracic nursing has undergone great change over the last decade. With the continuing improvement of surgical techniques, pharmacology and pre- and post-operative care, there have been many new initiatives and innovations in the nature and practice of this specialised sector of nursing. Rehabilitation and patient education are to name but a few of the areas where exciting new challenges and opportunities for cardiothoracic nurses have opened up.

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  • Our main purpose in editing this book is to provide the health care practitioner with general clinical practical guidelines regarding the use of pediatric cardiovascular drugs. We also intend to provide an overview of basic pediatric cardiovascular principles. We realize the need for a pocket reference handbook that is tailored to meet the daily challenges of practitioners that care for pediatric cardiac patients.

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  • The second edition, like the first one, is intended to provide practical guidance to clinicians looking after patients with heart disease, or who may be at risk of cardiac problems, in pregnancy and the puerperium. These will be hospital physicians and cardiologists, obstetricians, general practitioners and specialist nurses who provide direct care as well as the anaesthetists responsible for making delivery safe and the geneticists who answer the many questions posed by couples with a personal or family history of heart disease....

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  • The incidence of cardiovascular disease has decreased in the last several years with a better understanding of the pathophysiology of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), widespread implementation of lipid lowering drugs, improved surgical treatments such as stent placements, and new therapeutic regimens such as the statins, low molecular weight heparins, and platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors. Nevertheless, it remains today as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world....

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  • This book is intended for the physician, nurse, student or technician that occasionally comes in contact with patients who have implanted heart rhythm control devices. It is meant as a reference and basic resource to provide quick explanations and answers to situations that are likely to be encountered relating to pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

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  • Sudden cardiac death continues to present an important challenge in Europe, the United States, and other developed countries. Major difficulties exist in identifying individuals at risk prior to an episode of a ventricular tachyarrhythmia or a sudden cardiac arrest, and in responding in a timely fashion to the person suffering from the catastrophic event out of hospital. The European Society of Cardiology has established guidelines on how to address some of these issues.

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  • American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology’s Annual Scientific Sessions, and the tributes to the Award Winners who are honored at the annual congresses of the society, now known as the Heart Rhythm Society. Another source is the national electrocardiographical posters that the author compiled for the fiftieth anniversary of the European Society of Cardiology in Amsterdam (August, 2000); and finally the author’s private archives.

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  • The management of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) has evolved dramatically over the past decade and, in many respects, represents a rapidly moving target for the cardiologist, internist, emergency medicine specialist, intensivist, and clinical pathologist—all of whom seek to integrate these recent advances into contemporary clinical practice.

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  • The process of ageing has resulted in the emergence of a new epidemiological scenario in the developing countries with high prevalence of degenerative diseases that act as a major cause of death and disability and lack of mobility (Smith and Bares, 1991, Zwi, 1999). There are evidences of unhealthy ageing from almost all the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Pelaez and and Palloni (1998) have concluded that there is a long-run health degeneration in the ageing societies of the Caribbean and Latin America with changing disease pattern.

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  • Understanding the concepts presented in this chapter will enable the student to: 1. Describe the basic anatomy of the heart, including the names of venous and arterial vessels entering and leaving the heart, cardiac chambers, and heart valves; trace the flow of blood through the heart. 2. Describe how each of the following changes during the cardiac cycle:

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  • The field of medical genetics has traditionally focused on chromosomal abnormalities (Chap. 63) and Mendelian disorders (Chap. 62). However, there is genetic susceptibility to many common adult-onset diseases, including atherosclerosis, cardiac disorders, asthma, hypertension, autoimmune diseases, diabetes mellitus, macular degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, psychiatric disorders, and many forms of cancer.

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  • Physicians once found it convenient to think of cardiac arrhythmias as a sort of “itch” of the heart and of antiarrhythmic drugs as a soothing balm that, applied in sufficient quantities, would relieve the itch. During the past several decades, however, pioneering work has revealed many of the complexities of cardiac arrhythmias and of the drugs used to treat them. To the dismay of most reasonable people, the old, convenient viewpoint finally proved utterly false.

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  • Understanding the concepts presented in this chapter will enable the student to: 1. Describe the function of the following cellular components of cardiac myocytes: sarcolemma, intercalated disks, transverse (T)-tubules, myofibrils, myofilaments, sarcomeres, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and terminal cisternae. 2. Describe the composition of thick and thin myofilaments in cardiac myocytes. 3. Describe the significance of a functional syncytium within the heart. 4.

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  • The literature has pointed out to the relationship between obesity in youth and premature death due to endogenous causes of cardiac/metabolic origin. It is therefore fundamental to know how and when the risk factors for CMD begin to affect vascular function and structure, and particularly, how to detect them early in order to enable the development of truly primary preventive strategies.

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  • This book on investigative electrocardiography is addressed to investigators who are using electrocardiology as a research tool in epidemiological or clinical research or in investigations on possible adverse responses of new pharmacological agents. The primary emphasis of the book is on prognostic implications of ECG abnormalities in the conditions covered, including the prevalence and incidence of ECG abnormalities in contrasting populations. We excluded from our book cardiac disorders with a relatively low population prevalence that otherwise may be of great clinical interest.

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