Epidemiology of cardiac

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  • Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is currently divided into six discrete typing units (DTUs), named TcI-TcVI. TcII is among the major DTUs enrolled in human infections in South America southern cone, where it is associated with severe cardiac and digestive symptoms. Despite the importance of TcII in Chagas disease epidemiology and pathology, so far, no genome-wide comparisons of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of TcII field isolates have been performed to track the variability and evolution of this DTU in endemic regions.

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  • The association between uric acid (UA) on one side and systemic hypertension (Htn), dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, overweight, fatty liver, renal disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the other side is well recognized. However, the causal relationship between UA and these different clinical problems is still debatable. The recent years have witnessed hundreds of experimental and clinical trials that favored the opinion that UA is a probable player in the pathogenesis of these disease entities.

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  • part 1 book “visual guide to neonatal cardiology” has contents: cardiac embryology and embryopathy, maternal, familial, and non-cardiac fetal conditions affecting the fetal and neonatal heart, the natural and unnatural history of fetal heart disease, epidemiology of heart defects, history and physical examination,… and other contents.

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  • part 2 book “pals - pediatric advanced life support study guide” has contents: assessment evidence, anatomic and physiologic considerations, shock, length-based resuscitation tape, ventricular tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, electrical therapy, epidemiology of cardiac arrest,… and other contents.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 of the document Cardiac resynchronization therapy presents the following contents: Epidemiology of heart failure, pathobiology of left ventricular dyssynchrony, determinants of remodeling in systolic heart failure, summary of all large randomized trials, cardiac resynchronization therapy in special populations,...

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  • Epidemiological studies indicate that NO2 may increase respiratory illness in older children (5–15 years). These findings are of concern because of the potential long-term effects. Studies indicate that repeated respiratory illness in older children (independent of NO2) is associated with increased lung damage in later life. Thus, any increases in such illnesses associated with NO2 could have subsequent, as well as immediate, consequences (WHO, 2000).

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  • We, the editors of this book, both have a long association with Dorothea Orem—Susan Taylor since 1976 and Kathie Renpenning since 1983. Collaboration between the two of us began in 1983 at the instigation of Orem and continues to this day through theory development activities, writing and publishing, and giving presentations in North America, South America, Asia, and Europe. As we have worked with Orem and learned of her theoretical and conceptual work, we also got to know her personally and were privileged to have access to her working papers and presentations.

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  • Cardiothoracic nursing has undergone great change over the last decade. With the continuing improvement of surgical techniques, pharmacology and pre- and post-operative care, there have been many new initiatives and innovations in the nature and practice of this specialised sector of nursing. Rehabilitation and patient education are to name but a few of the areas where exciting new challenges and opportunities for cardiothoracic nurses have opened up.

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  • The process of ageing has resulted in the emergence of a new epidemiological scenario in the developing countries with high prevalence of degenerative diseases that act as a major cause of death and disability and lack of mobility (Smith and Bares, 1991, Zwi, 1999). There are evidences of unhealthy ageing from almost all the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Pelaez and and Palloni (1998) have concluded that there is a long-run health degeneration in the ageing societies of the Caribbean and Latin America with changing disease pattern.

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  • Genomics and other "omics” technologies have largely contributed to the identification and the development of biomarkers. Due to genetic causes of variability among individuals, genotyping and gene expression analysis are indeed key elements of the emergence of personalised medicine. However, genomic technologies have limitations (functional significance of genetic variants, false negatives, etc) and cannot encompass all approaches for the development of stratification biomarkers.

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  • This book on investigative electrocardiography is addressed to investigators who are using electrocardiology as a research tool in epidemiological or clinical research or in investigations on possible adverse responses of new pharmacological agents. The primary emphasis of the book is on prognostic implications of ECG abnormalities in the conditions covered, including the prevalence and incidence of ECG abnormalities in contrasting populations. We excluded from our book cardiac disorders with a relatively low population prevalence that otherwise may be of great clinical interest.

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  • This method is real-time PCR, which can be a qualitative or quantitative assay since amplification and detection of amplified products occur simultaneously. Then, typing is performed. Typing is primarily used for epidemiologic investigations, for studies on pathogenesis such as multiple serotype infections, for unusual or especially severe infections, or for treatment approaches such as high titer γ-globulin. The nucleotide sequences from these fragments were determined by a DNA auto sequencer with fluorescent dideoxy chain terminators.

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  • Cardiothoracic surgical nursing has undergone immense change over the past decade, owing in part to professional, economic and societal changes. The profile of patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery has also changed as cardiothoracic surgery is performed upon the more elderly, the high-risk or those with co- morbidity. Although previously considered at too high a risk for surgery, improved surgical techniques, pharmacology and pre- and post-operative care have resulted in a successful outcome for many patients and a return to an improved quality of life....

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  • The literature has pointed out to the relationship between obesity in youth and premature death due to endogenous causes of cardiac/metabolic origin. It is therefore fundamental to know how and when the risk factors for CMD begin to affect vascular function and structure, and particularly, how to detect them early in order to enable the development of truly primary preventive strategies.

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  • This book is not a systematic textbook about echocardiography. It provides a scheme for the interpretation of a study as an aide-memoire for the experienced echocardiographer or interpreting physician and as a learning tool for the beginner. Since the first edition, the text has been extensively revised by the inclusion of new guidelines, grading criteria, and normal data, including Doppler tissue imaging. It has also been reformatted to be more easily accessible. New chapters have been added on cardiac resynchronization and the atria.

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  • The management of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) has evolved dramatically over the past decade and, in many respects, represents a rapidly moving target for the cardiologist, internist, emergency medicine specialist, intensivist, and clinical pathologist—all of whom seek to integrate these recent advances into contemporary clinical practice.

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  • Previous chapters emphasized physiologic concepts concerning cardiac and vascular function at the cellular and organ level. In addition, they examined mechanisms, such as baroreceptors and circulating hormones, that regulate overall cardiovascular function. This chapter integrates all the components of the cardiovascular system and shows how they work together to maintain normal perfusion of organs under conditions of increased organ demand for blood flow (e.g., during exercise and pregnancy) or during abnormal stressful conditions such as hemorrhage....

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  • Understanding the concepts presented in this chapter will enable the student to: 1. Describe the basic anatomy of the heart, including the names of venous and arterial vessels entering and leaving the heart, cardiac chambers, and heart valves; trace the flow of blood through the heart. 2. Describe how each of the following changes during the cardiac cycle:

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  • Calculate the Nernst equilibrium potential for sodium, potassium, and calcium ions given their intracellular and extracellular concentrations. 3. Describe how changing the concentrations of sodium, potassium, and calcium ions inside and outside the cell affect the resting membrane potential in cardiac cells. 4. Explain why the resting potential is near the equilibrium potential for potassium and the peak of an action potential approaches the equilibrium potential for sodium. 5.

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  • Understanding the concepts presented in this chapter will enable the student to: 1. Describe the function of the following cellular components of cardiac myocytes: sarcolemma, intercalated disks, transverse (T)-tubules, myofibrils, myofilaments, sarcomeres, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and terminal cisternae. 2. Describe the composition of thick and thin myofilaments in cardiac myocytes. 3. Describe the significance of a functional syncytium within the heart. 4.

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