Eukaryotic diversity

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  • Chapter 28 - The origins of eukaryotic diversity. This chapter presents the following content: Systematists have split protists into many kingdoms, protists are the most diverse of all eukaryotes.

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  • Research in anoxic environments is a relatively new and rapidly growing branch of science that is of general interest to many students of diverse microbial communities. The term anoxia means absence of atmospheric oxygen, while the term hypoxia refers to O 2 depletion or to an extreme form of “low oxygen.” Both terms anoxia and hypoxia are used in various contexts. It is accepted that the initial microorganisms evolved anaerobically and thrived in an atmosphere without oxygen. The rise of atmospheric oxygen occurred ~2.

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  • Eukaryotic genomes are full of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. Although most LTR retrotransposons have common structural features and encode similar genes, there is nonetheless considerable diversity in their genomic organization, reflecting the different strategies they use to proliferate within the genomes of their hosts. reports deposited research Transposons are mobile genetic elements that can multiply in the genome using a variety of mechanisms. Retrotransposons replicate through...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Wertheim cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Unraveling the genomic diversity of small eukaryotes...

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  • RNA processing is an essential process in eukaryotic cells, creating different RNA species from one and the same gene. RNA processing occurs on nearly all kinds of RNAs, including mRNA that codes for proteins, ribosomal RNA, tRNA, snRNAs, and RNA. RNA processing usually occurs co-transcriptionally, and many factors are recruited by the RNA polymerase itself. This stimulates RNA processing by enhancing the correct assembly of factors as the RNA is being produced. Some factors, such as splice factors and cleavage factors for rRNA, are also recruited by the growing RNA-chain.

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  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding regulatory RNAs that function via the degradation of target mRNAs and inhibition of translation. They are found widely in higher eukaryotic organisms, and in several species that have been closely examined, hundreds of miRNAs have thus far been discovered with mechanistically conserved, yet functionally diverse, roles necessary for the proper development, homeostasis and metabolism of the organisms.

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  • CHAPTER NINE Ecology and Evolution of Cambrian Plankton Probable eukaryotic phytoplankton first appear in the fossil record in the Paleoproterozoic but undergo almost no morphologic change until the Early Cambrian. The radiation of diverse acanthomorphic phytoplankton in exact parallel with the Cambrian explosion of large animals.

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  • Non coding endogenous RNAs were first discovered in the last decade of the previous century. These new discoveries changed our views of the transcriptome landscape of plant genomes and paradigms of the regulation of gene expression. With the beginning of this century, we have witnessed an explosion of studies on small regulatory RNAs that has yielded a basic understanding of the many types of small RNAs in diverse eukaryotic species and how they are functioning as RNA–protein complexes along the RNA silencing pathways.

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  • The LC8 family members of dynein light chains (DYNLL1 and DYNLL2 in vertebrates) are highly conserved ubiquitous eukaryotic homodimer pro-teins that interact, besides dynein and myosin 5a motor proteins, with a large (and still incomplete) number of proteins involved in diverse biologi-cal functions.

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  • Actin is one of the most abundant proteins in nature. It is found in all eukaryotes and plays a fundamental role in many diverse and dynamic cellular processes. Also, actin is one of the most ubiquitous proteins because actin-like proteins have recently been identified in bacteria.

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  • Casein kinases I (CKI) are serine/threonine protein kinases widely expressed in a range of eukaryotes including yeast, mammals and plants. They have been shown to play a role in diverse physiological events including membrane trafficking. CKIa is associated with synaptic vesicles and phosphorylates some synaptic vesicle associated proteins including SV2. In this report, we show that syntaxin-1A is phosphorylated in vitro by CKI on Thr21.

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  • The membrane associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabo-lism (MAPEG) superfamily includes structurally related membrane proteins with diverse functions of widespread origin. A total of 136 proteins belong-ing to the MAPEG superfamily were found in database and genome screenings. The members were found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but not in any archaeal organism.

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  • Serpins are the largest family of protease inhibitors and are fundamental for the control of proteolysis in multicellular eukaryotes. Most eukaryote serpins inhibit serine or cysteine proteases, however, noninhibitory mem-bers have been identified that perform diverse functions in processes such as hormone delivery and tumour metastasis. More recently inhibitory ser-pins have been identified in prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes, never-theless, the precise molecular targets of these molecules remains to be identified....

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  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) cascades have emerged as a major signal transduction mechanism that connects diverse receptors or sensors to cellular and nuclear responses in eukaryotes. Although function and activation of some MPKs in response to stimuli have been studied in details, but substrates of these kinases were still poorly understood.

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  • Retrotransposons (REs) are the most abundant and diverse elements identified from eukaryotic genomes. Using computational and molecular methods, 262 intact LTR retrotransposons were identified from Brassica genomes by dot plot analysis and data mining.

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