Eukaryotic organisms

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  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding regulatory RNAs that function via the degradation of target mRNAs and inhibition of translation. They are found widely in higher eukaryotic organisms, and in several species that have been closely examined, hundreds of miRNAs have thus far been discovered with mechanistically conserved, yet functionally diverse, roles necessary for the proper development, homeostasis and metabolism of the organisms.

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  • The 14-3-3 family is a group of intracellular proteins found in all eukaryotic organisms. Humans have seven isoforms that serve as scaffolds to promote interactions of regulatory phospho-proteins involved in many vital cellular processes and previous studies have shown that disturbances in native 14-3-3 levels can contribute significantly to the development of various cancers.

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  • DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modifcation that plays a critical role in most eukaryotic organisms. Parental alleles in haploid genomes may exhibit diferent methylation patterns, which can lead to diferent phenotypes and even diferent therapeutic and drug responses to diseases.

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  • DNA methylation plays crucial roles in most eukaryotic organisms. Bisulfite sequencing (BS-Seq) is a sequencing approach that provides quantitative cytosine methylation levels in genome-wide scope and single-base resolution.

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  • Genetic information is physically carried on large DNA strings that are organized into chromosomes. Each species is characterized by a chromosome set that carry the information necessary and sufficient for its development and survival. Eukaryotic organisms are mostly diploid, containing two sets of chromosomes with each pair carrying nearly identical genetic information. Occasionally, exceptions to this rule are found, such as haploid yeast (with only one set of chromosomes) or polyploid ferns and frogs (with multiple sets).

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  • Fluorescence microscopy allows an extensive variety of analyzes in structural biology. Until the beginning of the seventeenth century living beings were limited to macroscopic organisms only, and there was no knowledge of the microscopic universe. Epi-fluorescence and Confocal microscopy appears in 1995 by Marvin Minsky with the aim of increasing the contrast and constructing three-dimensional images by the use of an aperture, allowing a great definition.

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  • The nonrandom radial organization of eukaryotic chromosome territories (CTs) inside the nucleus plays an important role in nuclear functional compartmentalization. Increasingly, chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) based approaches are being used to characterize the genome structure of many cell types and conditions.

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  • All sequenced eukaryotic genomes have been shown to possess at least a few introns. This includes those unicellular organisms, which were previously suspected to be intron-less. Therefore, gene splicing must have been present at least in the last common ancestor of the eukaryotes.

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  • DNA replication is a fundamental part of the life cycle of all organisms. Not surprisingly many aspects of this process display profound conservation across organisms in all domains of life. The chapters in this volume outline and review the current state of knowledge on several key aspects of the DNA replication process. This is a critical process in both normal growth and development and in relation to a broad variety of pathological conditions including cancer.

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  • Chapter 1 - Introduction: Themes in the study of life. In this chapter, you should now be able to: Briefly describe the unifying themes that characterize the biological sciences; distinguish among the three domains of life, and the eukaryotic kingdoms; distinguish between the following pairs of terms: discovery science and hypothesis-based science, quantitative and qualitative data, inductive and deductive reasoning, science and technology.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 of the document Introduction to genetic analysis presents the following contents: Genetics and the organism, patterns of inheritance, the chromosomal basis of inheritance, eukaryote chromosome mapping by recombination, the genetics of bacteria and their viruses, from gene to phenotype,... and other contents.

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  • hSfi1, a human centrosomal protein with homologs in other eukaryotic organisms, includes 23 repeats, each of 23 amino acids, separated by 10 residue linkers. The main molecular partner in the centrosome is a small, calcium-binding EF-hand protein, the human centrin 2. Using isothermal titration calorimetry experiments, we characterized the centrin-binding capacity of three isolated hSfi1 repeats, two exhibiting the general consen-sus motif and the third being the unique Pro-containing human repeat....

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  • The molecular mechanisms of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system have been uncovered over the last decade, especially in prokaryotes. The results obtained for prokaryotic MMR proteins have provided a frame-work for the study of the MMR system in eukaryotic organisms, such as yeast, mouse and human, because the functions of MMR proteins have been conserved during evolution from bacteria to humans.

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  • After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Briefly describe the unifying themes that characterize the biological sciences; distinguish among the three domains of life, and the eukaryotic kingdoms; distinguish between the following pairs of terms: discovery science and hypothesis-based science, quantitative and qualitative data, inductive and deductive reasoning, science and technology.

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  • This chapter distinguish between the following pairs of terms: magnification and resolution, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, free and bound ribosomes, smooth and rough ER; describe the structure and function of the components of the endomembrane system; briefly explain the role of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes;...

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  • After completing this unit, you should be able to: Describe the structural organization of the prokaryotic genome and the eukaryotic genome; list the phases of the cell cycle; describe the sequence of events during each phase; list the phases of mitosis and describe the events characteristic of each phase;...

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  • Cell navigation is the process whereby cells or cytoplasmic extensions are guided from one point to another in multicellular organisms or, in the case of unicellular eukaryotic organisms, in the environment. Recent work has demonstrated that membrane trafficking plays an important role in this process.

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  • Eukaryotic genomes are composed of isochores, i.e. long sequences relat-ively homogeneous in GC content. In this paper, the isochore structure of Arabidopsis thalianagenome has been studied using a windowless technique based on theZcurve method and intuitive curves are drawn for all the five chromosomes. Using these curves, we can calculate the GC content at any resolution, even at the base level.

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  • In this chapter you will learn: State the basic principles of the cell theory, explain how the surface area-to-volume ratio limits cell size, summarize the role of microscopy in the study of cells, identify the components of a human cell and state its function, distinguish between the structure of a prokaryotic cell and that of a eukaryotic cell,...

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  • This chapter explain in general terms how redox reactions are involved in energy exchanges; name the three stages of cellular respiration, for each, state the region of the eukaryotic cell where it occurs and the products that result; in general terms, explain the role of the electron transport chain in cellular respiration;...

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