Extent and nature

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  • Cancer registries can play an important role in the evaluation and mon- itoring of screening programmes aimed at detecting pre-invasive condi- tions. Cancer registration data have been used in routine-data-based stud- ies to examine trends in disease rates in relation to screening frequencies within a population and to compare disease rates between different popu- lations with the coverage offered by their screening programmes (see Section 16.3.1).

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  • Agricultural drought is a natural hazard that characterized by shortage of water supply. In recent decades, the scientists usually deal with phrases Agricultural drought monitoring as an essential component of drought risk management and using remote sensing (RS) and Geography Information System (GIS) based on drought indicators, proposed and widely used in the field of drought monitoring. This paper presents some agricultural drought indicators to generate a suite of drought levels at monthly, seasonal, and annual time scales for the North Central regions, Vietnam.

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  • Watersheds are natural hydrological entities that cover a specific aerial expanse of land surface from which the rainfall runoff flows to a defined drain, channel, stream or river at any particular point. In the last two decades, watershed management has gained the top most priority in water resources sector necessitating delineation of watersheds upto mini watershed level in order to take up watershed development and management programmes. Prerequisite for watershed management is knowledge of watershed characteristics like slope, relief, aerial extent and drainage networks.

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  • Pesticides are divided to insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, acaricides and nematocides according to the organisms that they affect. There are various forms of insecticides; most are repellants or insect growth regulators used in agriculture, public health, horticulture or food storage. It is evident that insecticides have been used to boost food production to a considerable extent and to control disease vectors.

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  • The fi sheries in Newfoundland and Labrador waters began in the early 1500s, were prosecuted mainly for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and increased markedly, and unsustainably, in the last half of the 20th century. The terms of union of Newfoundland with Canada relinquished full authority for research and management of the marine fi sheries to the Government of Canada in 1949.

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  • All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy...

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  • To which extent this decrease in bond yields is associated with changes in short-term or long-term rates becomes more evident when looking at the yield curve defined as the 10-year government bond yield minus the three months Euribor shown in Figure 2. Over the entire year, the slope of the yield curve fell by roughly 20 bp to somewhat less than 130 bp. The same trend is also illustrated by the implied one-year forward rate in nine years, as extracted from the German zero-coupon curve. 20 The rate falls by 10 bp in the course of year, although there are sizeable developments over time.

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  • This paper begins with looking to changes in the definition of marketing. It traces marketing's expansion from a discipline concerned with business transactions in an economic market place, through a discipline concerned with any organisation that can be said to have customers, to a discipline concerned with all organisations in their relationships with all their publics, not just their customers.

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  • Staging As noted in Chap. 77, an important component of patient management is defining the extent of disease. Radiographic and other imaging tests can be helpful in defining the clinical stage; however, pathologic staging requires defining the extent of involvement by documenting the histologic presence of tumor in tissue biopsies obtained through a surgical procedure.

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  • Interpreting fully natural speech is an important goal for spoken language understanding systems. However, while corpus studies have shown that about 10% of spontaneous utterances contain self-corrections, or REPAIRS, little is known about the extent to which cues in the speech signal may facilitate repair processing. We identify several cues based on acoustic and prosodic analysis of repairs in a corpus of spontaneous speech, and propose methods for exploiting these cues to detect and correct repairs.

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  • Another major global trend – and one not easily controlled – is the global rise in temperature. Most debates are currently focused on the extent of human agency and on the nature of the causes of climate change. Should climate change have the effects popularly predicted – by no means a fait accompli – then geostrategy will return as an important factor in interna- tional politics.

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  • We compare the impact of sentenceinternal vs. sentence-external features on word order prediction in two generation settings: starting out from a discriminative surface realisation ranking model for an LFG grammar of German, we enrich the feature set with lexical chain features from the discourse context which can be robustly detected and reflect rough grammatical correlates of notions from theoretical approaches to discourse coherence. In a more controlled setting, we develop a constituent ordering classifier that is trained on a German treebank with gold coreference annotation. ...

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  • Natural language instructions, though prevalent in many spheres of communication, have only recently begun to receive attention within computational linguistics[5]. Instructions are often accompanied by language intended to signal repetition of the action that they instruct. In order to develop a system that is able to understand instructions, with the goal of executing them, it is necessary to investigate what is meant by various types of repetition, and the different ways in which repetition can be expressed. ...

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  • This paper discusses the theoretical and practical concerns in part-of-speech (POS) tagging for Chinese. Unlike other languages such as English, Chinese lacks morphological marking in association with categorial alternations. We consider such categorial fluidity a continuum, and any categorial shift a transition, with special focus on the verb-noun shift.

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  • Referent identification in human conversation is performed both by describing the objects in question and by pointing at them. Up till now, only the linguistic component could be simulated in dialog systems. But recently, technical innovations have made it possible to 'point' at the objects on a display as well. The paper has two intentions. First, it investigates natural pointing in more detail and offers some possibilities to classify the great variety of pointing actions.

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  • We present the results from a series of experiments aimed at uncovering the discourse structure of man-machine communication in natural language (Wizard of Oz experiments). The results suggest the existence of different classes of dialogue situations, requiring computational discourse representations of various complexity. Important factors seem to be the number of different permissible tasks in the system and to what extent the system takes initiative in the dialogue.

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  • It seems highly desirable to use a single representation of linguistic knowledge for both analysis and generation. We argue that the only part of the average NL system's knowledge that we can have any faith in is its vocabulary and, to a lesser extent, its syntactic rules, and we investigate the consequences of this for generation. 1 ANALYSIS Consider a typical NLU system. You give it a piece of text, say: (1) The house I live in is damp. It grinds away, trying out syntactic rules until it has an analysis of the structure of the text. ...

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  • After completing this chapter, you will know: Why is biodiversity important? Make a list of some of the general reasons that animals and plants are endangered; how could a company (legally) develop land that is home to an endangered species? What is the most productive terrestrial ecosystem? What is the extent of deforestation globally? Where and how rapidly is it occurring? Contrast the different levels of ecosystem protection given to public lands in the United States; what is the tragedy of the commons? Give an example of a commons and how it is mistreated.

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  • Results of a field study designed to assess the extent of natural microbial infections in insects collected from agrarian fields msurrounding Adana, Turkey, are reported. We identified and dissected specimens to assess the numbers of nodules.

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  • Lassa Fever is endemic to the eastern region of Sierra Leone. It is a haemorrhagic disease that is often transmitted from rats to humans and then human to humans. Ecological disturbances such as changes in land use involving conversion of natural ecosystem s to agriculture, mining or for urban expansion are reported to bring humans into close contact with animals such as the Mastomys rat that carries the Lassa Fever virus thereby posing health problems.

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