Fertility and fecundity

Xem 1-20 trên 64 kết quả Fertility and fecundity
  • The children protection began in 12th and 13th centuries in Aragón and Castilla after the promulgation of some laws by King Alfonso X “The Wise” of Castilla and King Pedro IV of Aragón. The first of them, in the law “Fuero Juzgo” sentenced the abortion and the infanticide. The second of them, King Pedro IV, created the figure of “Judge and Father of Orphans”, whose mission was to look after children's health, to keep them away of begging and to lead them to work. There even were centers where children received food and education. Bernardo Gordonio, in his book ...

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  • From April 2008 to April 2011, with the support of grants from the Ford Foundation and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) /United Nations Fund for International Partnerships (UNFIP), WHO and UNFPA developed and delivered a training programme for their staff entitled “Strengthening capacity of UNFPA and WHO to advocate for the integration of sexual and reproductive health issues into national development planning processes”.

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  • Hollywood submitted to the rigorous oversight of the PCA because the alternatives to “censorship at the source” were far worse. After all, censorship had been a fact of creative and commercial life for motion picture producers from the very birth of the medium, when even the modest osculations of the middle-aged lovebirds in Thomas Edison’s The Kiss (1896) scandalized cadres of (literally) Victorian ministers, matrons, and other variants of a sour-faced species known as the “bluenose.

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  • When an infection occurs, immune cells flock to the area and secrete large amounts of highly reactive chemicals to combat the invader. But, these inflammatory chemicals also attack normal tissue surrounding the infection and damage critical components of cells, including DNA. During chronic inflammation, DNA damage may lead to mutations or cell death and even to cancer and other diseases.

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  • Total GHGEs from the food supply can be split by a nominal boundary of the regional distribution centre (RDC), i.e. primary commodity production and transport to the RDC (pre-RDC) and processing, transport to retail, storage, preparation and waste (post-RDC), in the ratio of 56:44 (Audsley et al. 2009). It is recognised, however, that this is only a nominal boundary as it is not always clear exactly where primary production ends and processing begins for different types of food.

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  • Indirect standardization is more appropriate for rare outcomes than direct standardization, resulting in the calculation of rates (McMichael and Giles, 1988). A limitation of this study is that we did not have access to information on potentially important risk factors such as lifestyle. Results for all causes of deaths were significantly lower compared to the autochthon German population. Overall SMR is reduced for the Aussiedler, therefore, they seem to be healthier or more resistant than the Germans and therefore they are much healthier than populations of countries from the FSU....

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  • Though still small – a market for green investments is also starting to grow. Alongside more developed equity products (such as green indices comprising of listed companies operating in the green space), fixed income instruments are also being launched – notably green bonds, for which the OECD estimates that the market is now around USD 16 billion. Alongside the World Bank‟s USD 2.3 billion issuance, other development banks have become involved (EIB, ADB) and the US government has introduced interesting initiatives.

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  • The  nomenclature  for  the  Interagency  List  of  Essential Medical Devices  for  Reproductive  Health  is based on  the existing United Nations Common Coding System  (UNCCS) and  the  UNICEF products database for the classification of products groups.     All products from this list are identified with a generic, short description with a maximum of  50 characters, except for the sutures. The complete technical specifications of the products are  based on the UNICEF standard products.

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  • An option of longstanding interest is prevention—interventions that prevent or delay the occurrence of the very diseases that drive these costs. There are three kinds of prevention. Primary prevention can be accomplished by modifying unhealthy behaviors (e.g., smoking, physical inactivity), which cause many diseases and account for 38% of all deaths in the United States, 6 administering immunizations to prevent infectious diseases, and reducing exposure to harmful environmental factors.

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  • Even in work that lies so near the fortuities of animate nature as dairying, stock−breeding, and the improvement of crop plants, a determinate, reasoned routine replaces the rule of thumb. By mechanical control of his materials the dairyman, e.g., selectively determines the rate and kind of the biological processes that change his raw material into finished product.

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  • Many people who develop materials try to create something for “everyone.” After all, everyone needs good information and would probably benefit from knowing what you have to say. In reality, no one thing is right for everyone. Instead, certain things tend to work best for certain groups of people. The more narrowly you can define these groups, the closer you will come to meeting their needs. That is why materials should speak to a particular audience: people who share similar characteristics and have similar information needs.

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  • Even when schools are free, poor children may be forced to leave in order to work. Children may need to provide extra house- hold income or care for younger siblings so that both parents can work outside the home. Conditional cash transfers have been used as effective incentives for parents to enrol their children in school in Latin America. Families receive money on the condition that their children attend school and go to health-care appointments (see Box 7, page 25). In addition, grants can go directly to teachers and to schools.

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  • Enter the amount of terminal loss relief you are claiming against your 2011–12 profits at box 73 on page SEF 4 or box 15 on the Partnership pages as a loss brought forward and used this year . This is in addition to any other losses you are bringing forward from earlier years, but make sure you do not count the same loss twice. Enter the total amount of terminal loss relief for 2010–11, 2009–10 or 2008–09 in box 78 on page SEF 4 or box 21 on the Partnership pages and give details of the amount carried back to each year in the ‘Any other information’...

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  • We find a positive and significant relationship between the ROE of the appointing firm and the relative performance of the executive director‟s ROE. In terms of magnitude, a two standard deviations increase in the relative ROE of the company where director holds an executive position increases ROE of the appointing company by 0.035. This is a very substantial increase given that the average (median) ROE is 0.10 (0.12). We interpret this result as evidence that the appointing firm gains some of the director‟s human capital in the form of better quality...

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  • Over the last twenty years, the field of behavioral finance has grown from a startup operation into a mature enterprise, with well-developed bodies of both theory and empirical evidence. On the empirical side, the benchmark null hypothesis is that one should not be able to forecast a stock’s return with anything other than measures of its riskiness, such as its beta; this hypothesis embodies the familiar idea that any other form of predictability would represent a profitable trading rule and hence a free lunch to investors.

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  • The credit began as part of a broader effort by Senator Russell Long (Dem.-La.) to derail congressional and presidential interest in a negative income tax (NIT) in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The initial debates highlighted a tension that exists to this day. The attraction of the NIT was that—as a universal antipoverty program—it would provide a guaranteed minimal standard of living to all in an administratively efficient way (through the tax system) without having the notches and high cumulative marginal tax rates that characterize a patchwork system of narrower pro- grams.

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  • Banks worldwide are facing a crisis of confidence. According to a nationally representative survey in the US, less than half the customers had confidence in the financial security of banks – not a faith-inspiring number when you consider the fact that this survey was conducted a week before the Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy. The sub-prime fiasco, Madoff scandal and subsequent market downslide have destroyed customer faith and trust in financial institutions.

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  • Another scheme, prime bank notes are “fictitious and fraudulent instruments -- not backed or endorsed by any legitimate financial institution.” In other words, prime bank notes do not exist. 4 These “investments” are often marketed using an assortment of vague terms such as debentures, letters of credit, commercial paper, prime notes, bills of exchange; bank secured trading programs or loan roll programs. The sales pitch typically includes promises of unrealistic rates of return (e.g.

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  • If we multiply the price-earnings estimate of Sloan (1936), which is equal to 17.5, by 1929 total NIPA earnings, we get an estimate for the market value of all corporations in late August/early September of 1929 of 1.54 times GNP (= 30.8/1.76 × 8.8). We can use the same procedure with companies in the S&P indices. In Table 2, we provide a list of the 50 companies in the S&P industrial index, the 20 companies in the S&P index of railroads and the 20 companies in the S&P index of public utilities. The 90 are the stocks in their composite index. Along with names, we report...

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  • We all know that keeping a positive attitude can affect our mental and physical health. So main- taining a certain amount of calm and acceptance about your circumstances can set the tone for your family interactions. If the parent with PD is con- stantly complaining or embarrassed, kids will pick up on that and act the same way. Of course, that’s not to say that you have to keep everyone’s spirits up all the time. You need to experience your own emotions and give them validation. The key is to not get caught up in your emotions and let them drag you down.

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