Fiber Bragg grating

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  • In this work, we have interested to utilize Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) for monitoring sound intensity level. Acoustic disturbance could induces train and changing the refractive index of FBG. Therefore, light will interfere for the trough of transmission at one specific wavelength satisfied Bragg’s condition. In our demonstrations FBG sensor was perturbed with sound intensity levels of 60, 80 and 100 dB, the measuring Bragg wavelengths were recorded at1552 nm, 1553 nm and 1555 nm, respectively.

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  • Eye movement evaluation is vital for diagnosis of various ophthalmological and neurological disorders. The present study proposes a novel, noninvasive, wearable device to acquire the eye movement based on a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) Sensor. The proposed Fiber Bragg Grating Eye Tracker (FBGET) can capture the displacement of the eyeball during its movements in the form of strain variations on a cantilever.

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  • An embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor, which fabricated in IMS, for temperature sensing was proposed. The temperature responses of the in-fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) have been investigated. It was found that these responses ranged from 10.6 pm/°C to 12.0 pm/°C. The temperature sensitivity of the FBGs was 0.2°C. The strain responses remained temperature independent over a temperature range of 20 – 180 ◦C.

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  • We consider a model of a passively mode-locking fiber ring laser bult using a saturable absorber and a chirped fiber Bragg grating to balance dispersion and nonlinearity. The evolution of the slowly envelope of the optical field in a loop fiber subject to dispersion , Kerr nonlinearity, frequency- chirp and nonlinear absorption is given by the generalized complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. The influence of the frequency-chirp on the pulse is simulated and discussed, and the stationary conditions concerning the chirp parameter are found out for our laser.

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  • In this paper, we overview some configurations of photonic devices for measuring mechanical strain and wavelength shift without use of spectrometer, which have been developed recently and demonstrated large potential application in sensing technique with low cost.

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  • In our proposed technique the wavelength shift of FBG can be determined by change of lasing wavelength of distributed feedback laser (DFB-laser) due to the change of laser substrate temperature. The maximal opto-electrical intensity of photodetector would be obtained when the laser wavelength and FBG reflection wavelength are coincided. The FBG sensor prototype has shown excellent response for laser temperature change in the range of 100C-50 0C with the ratio ∆λ/∆T of the DFB laser is of 77.5 pm.K−1 .

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  • In addition to local periodontal tissue involvement, chronic infection of the periodontium together with continuous up-regulation of pro-inflammatory responses and immune mediators may contribute to systemic sequel including diabetes, preterm delivery of lowweight birth babies, lung inflammation, arthritis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

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  • To enhance learning (RL) is a branch en ot the foundation cial intelligence and has been one of the central themes in a wide range of scientifi c fi elds final two decades. Understanding of the RL is expected to provide a systematic understanding the adaptive behaviors, including simple things of classical and operant animal as well as all acts of social and economic complexity of the human is designed to ts maximize the effect, and also very helpful in learning computer and robot. RL aims to fi nd mapping from situations to appropriate actions, in which a reward is maxi- mized....

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  • The study began in January 2010. Ethics approval for the conduct of the study was gained from the UTS Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) before the recruitment of student participants commenced. Final clearance from the UTS HREC was obtained at the end of March 2010 and 40 places were then reserved at the UTS IELTS Test Centre for the Academic module of the IELTS Test to be conducted on 10 July 2010. A research assistant was contracted in April, her first task being to recruit participants for the study.

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  • Of course, biomass and food brought this key trade-off biomass use: the controversial food or fuel. With two primary uses of biomass appropriate resolution of this balance is essential for biomass acceptable and beneficial use in the future. Obvious example of biomass for energy is ethanol misuse produced from corn, a conversion process is relatively inefficient as well as a direct Collision course with the way corn as food.

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  • Alternatively, banks may be optimising their capital structure, possibly much like non- financial firms, which would relegate capital requirements to second order importance. Flannery (1994), Myers and Rajan (1998), Diamond and Rajan (2000) and Allen et al. (2009) develop theories of optimal bank capital structure, in which capital requirements are not necessarily binding. Non-binding capital requirements are also explored in the market discipline literature.

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  • In the experiments, the chlorophyll fluorescence was measured under steady-state conditions, in 20 min predarkened intact leaves, and we have employed as the excitation source, a blue LED at 405 nm with 10 nm of bandwidth and delivering a maximum power of 2.2 mW. The choice relies upon the fact that its wavelength resides within the main absorption band of Chl a, producing much higher fluorescence emission intensity.

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  • We inquired about the training courses that laborers have received at some point in their working lives on topics like the safe handling of pesticides and it was found that 74,2% had never been trained, so they did not have the necessary skills to handle such substances.

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  • Water policies intersect with a wide array of sectors, especially energy and agriculture, and are implemented at various geographical scales, from local to international. Thus, policy coherence is essential. However, tensions may arise from real or perceived trade‑offs between various policy objectives ‑ for instance, between food security and water productivity. Inefficiencies may result from subsidies that have negative impacts on water, as in the case of energy subsidies for groundwater abstraction by farmers. Resolving these tensions requires a global perspective.

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  • This is the third FinCEN study of SARs filed on transactions involving insurance companies and insurance products. A report issued in May 2007 provided a sum- mary of SARs filed in the 10-year period prior to May 2006 by all types of financial institutions regarding suspicious transactions involving insurance companies, insur- ance agents, and insurance brokers. 6 A report issued in February 2003 provided a summary of SARs filed between 1996 and 2002 by all types of financial institutions regarding transactions specifically involving life insurance products.

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  • The first block is responsible for receiving and amplifying the brain signal, allocating electrodes into specific places on the scalp in the case of the use of electrodes on the surface, or inside brain in the intracortical use cases, in the second block signal is sampled, the quantity and periodic system of time to digitize it, to simplify the following digitized phase signal can be filtered, for example to reduce the noise level is Better SNR or signal identification and processing artifacts....

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  • The logic of values provides the very engine of business. Far from the inhibiting mindsets which we mentioned earlier, an innovative mindset is central to thinking creatively about business. The innovative mindset is a perspective that believes there is not one solution to the environmental problem but many solutions to any problem. It is the belief that new problems require new solutions.

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  • A second channel through which collectively bargained wages might promote wage insurance relates to the level of wage bargaining. If wages are determined at sectoral or national levels, this should open up less possibilities for local wage adjustments as compared with firm-level wage bargaining. Taken together, the overall view that emerges from these considerations is that collective bargaining may act as a substitute for legal contractual enforcement and may therefore serve as a device to promote implicit contractual arrangements when legal enforcement is otherwise unavailable....

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  • The second approach quantifies the goods and the added value involved, as well as the resource and product flows, both to understand the above elements and for its intrinsic scientific interest. To quantify such processes requires development of specific methods to obtain the necessary statistical data. To understand the global dimensions of the industrial cluster at Jepara, we compare the economic and social processes driving the actions of firms in the industrial district with those located elsewhere in Indonesia and in other countries.

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  • For example, because of their different jobs and schedules, women and men may be exposed to toxins in different amounts and levels. In South Africa, women are exposed more often to pesticides during planting and harvesting and men during application (London et al., 2002; Kisting in WHO, 2005). Men’s jobs in factories can involve higher exposure than women’s to toluene, a chemical solvent that can cause various problems to the reproductive and nervous systems (Neubert et al., 2001).

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