Fluid sampling

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Broad-range PCR, cloning and sequencing of the full 16S rRNA gene for detection of bacterial DNA in synovial fluid samples of Tunisian patients with reactive and undifferentiated arthritis...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Electrophoretic characterization of species of fibronectin bearing sequences from the N-terminal heparin-binding domain in synovial fluid samples from patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis...

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  • Many mathematical tools can be used to analyze vibrational systems. One of the first mathemat- ical tools a neophyte engineer learns is calculus. The basics of limits, differentiation, and integration permeate all of engineering mathematics. This chapter offers a cursory review of these topics and uses the mathematics of vibrations to demonstrate how the concepts operate. For more specific information on all these topics, consult relevant sections of this Handbook.

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  • In the past few decades, the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been developed into a key indispensable technology in the modeling and simulation of various engineering systems.

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  • Geochemical – Geochemical surveys that monitor the reservoir characteristics have routinely been used in the oil and gas industry and have been successfully adopted for use in monitoring carbon sequestration. Initially, reservoir samples (solids, liquids, and gases) are collected to establish a baseline prior to CO2 injection; tests can be repeated later to monitor CO2 migration (using tracers), or to assess geochemical changes, as CO2 saturated brine reacts with the reservoir formation.

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  • To determine if the presence of reproductive messages is a long term, enduring feature of song lyrics, the fourth study was based on a content analysis of the lyrics contained in a sample of representative art songs and opera aria dating back as far as 1597. Arias are usually a melodic segment set within the context of a larger composition called an opera. Though arias are often performed independent of the full opera, they derive much of their meaning from the framework of the surrounding composition. In contrast, Art songs are smaller scale compositions that...

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  • The sample was constructed in the following way. First, we dropped all company- years that do not report either executive or non-executive boards. Second, we removed all firms that report either negative equity or negative total assets. At this point the data consisted of about 57,000 director-company-year observations pertaining to 8,506 firm-years. Third, to address the issue of firms in severe financial distress, we have dropped companies that report ROE or ROS less than -1.

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  • It is possible to measure effects of different covariables e.g. age, length of stay in Germany, etc. on the SMR and SIR by categorization, but this method is limited because of small sample sizes in subcategories. Another approach classically used in cohort studies is a Poisson regression model, which assesses the effects of different covariables simultaneously. It is based on the Poisson distribution, which is an approximation of the binomial distribution applied in large samples where the probability of the outcome is small.

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  • Urine, amniotic fluid and ascitic fluid samples of galactosialidosis patients were analyzed and structurally characterized for free oligosaccharides using capillary high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and online mass spectrometry. In addition to the expected endo-b-N-acetylglucosaminidase-cleaved products of complex-type sialylated N-glycans, O-sulfated oligosaccharide moieties were detected.

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  • The water is pumped from wells. Based on current grower and district information, the estimated cost is $100.00 per acre-foot or $8.33 per acre-inch. Water costs vary considerably depending upon water district and pumping variables. In some areas district or agency fees may apply. A pre-irrigation using two acre-inches is applied prior to seedbed preparation to soften the soil. Approximately three-acre inches of water are applied through sprinklers during stand establishment – two-inches during the first...

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  • Recently, the use of oral fluids such as GCF, whole saliva and oral rinse as a means of evaluating host-derived products, as well as exogenous components (for instance: oral microorganisms and microbial products), has been suggested as potential sources and diagnostic markers, respectively for disease susceptibility (Sahingur and Cohen 2004; Buduneli and Kinane 2011).

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  • Serous or “body cavity fluids” are usually collected with aseptic technique by needle puncture and aspiration of the body cavity fluid. Methods for obtaining the specimen vary depending upon the site. Fluids are best collected into a dry container and submitted in the fresh state to the laboratory. 7 Adding 3-5 IU heparin/mL to a container prior to obtaining a bloody sample will usually inhibit clotting and not adversely affect morphology. If delay in transportation to the laboratory is unavoidable, most fluids may be kept refrigerated (4ºC) up to 72 hours.

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  • Cytogenetic Testing in Prenatal Diagnosis The vast majority of prenatal diagnostic studies are performed to rule out a chromosomal abnormality, but cells may also be propagated for biochemical studies or molecular analyses of DNA. Three procedures are used to obtain samples for prenatal diagnosis: amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling (CVS), and fetal blood sampling. Amniocentesis is the most common procedure and is routinely performed at 15–17 weeks of gestation.

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  • When the needle is moved in different directions, it samples a much wider area than a core biopsy (FNA is thus more representative than a core biopsy). The to and fro movements and changing the direction of the needle, while it is still inside the lesion are the two crucial steps in procuring an adequate representative sample. Movement of the needle is adjusted according to the type of lesion. A sclerotic lesion will require more force than a soft tumor. A cyst will almost aspirate by itself.

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  • Tumor markers are secreted, released, or leaked into the interstitial fluids, and thus into the lymph, and finally (or directly) into the bloodstream, where they become detectable in serum samples. To be able to enter the bloodstream directly, larger molecules, often proteins, are cleaved into truncated forms or fragments, which are sometimes specific to the protease micro-environment of the tumor. Tumor markers can be associated with patient diagnosis, prognosis, clinical management, and follow-up.

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  • The advantages of diagnostic cytology are that it is a non-invasive, simple procedure, helps in faster reporting, is relatively inexpensive, has high population acceptance and facilitates cancer screening in the field. Diagnostic cytology can be carried out by different methods, which includes collection and examination of exfoliated cells such as vaginal scrapes, sputum, urine, body fluids etc. Collection of cells by brushing, scraping or abrasive techniques is usually employed to confirm or exclude malignancy.

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  • Between March 31 and April 16, the Anhui CDC tested 53 specimens (including whole blood, blood serum, pharyngeal swab and tissue samples), collected from fatal HFMD cases, and tested negative for the presence of seasonal influenza, avian influenza A/H5N1, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) . On April 18, the Institutes of Infectious Diseases and the Viral Diseases Prevention and Control of Chinese CDC received from Anhui CDC the previously collected specimens: pharyngeal swabs, lung puncture fluid, lung tissues, and blood.

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  • Biopsy (BY-op-see): The removal of cells or tissues for examination by a pathologist. The pathologist may study the tissue under a microscope or perform other tests on the cells or tissue. When only a sample of tissue is removed, the procedure is called an incisional biopsy. When an entire lump or suspicious area is removed, the procedure is called an excisional biopsy. When a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle, the procedure is called a needle biopsy, core biopsy, or fine-needle aspiration.

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