Foreign loans

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  • Đầu tư trực tiếp nước ngoài (tiếng Anh: Foreign Direct Investment, viết tắt là FDI) là hình thức đầu tư dài hạn của cá nhân hay công ty nước này vào nước khác bằng cách thiết lập cơ sở sản xuất, kinh doanh. Cá nhân hay công ty nước ngoài đó sẽ nắm quyền quản lý cơ sở sản xuất kinh doanh này.

    pdf0p bluesky_12 19-12-2012 48 21   Download

  • ABSTRACT Vietnam’s foreign exchange (forex) market has remained relatively poorly developed despite more than two decades of general reform throughout the economy. This paper adopts a microstructure approach to the analysis of the root-causes underlying the operational deficiencies of this market. The analysis suggests that the authorities have tended to follow a de facto adjustable peg exchange rate regime which, in turn, has acted as a retardant to the development of the country’s forex market. Consequently, market signals have become increasingly non-transparent.

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  • Future historians may well look upon the years 1978–80 as a revolutionary turning-point in the world’s social and economic history. In 1978, Deng Xiaoping took the first momentous steps towards the liberalization of a communist-ruled economy in a country that accounted for a fifth of the world’s population. The path that Deng defined was to transform China in two decades from a closed backwater to an open centre of capitalist dynamism with sustained growth rates unparalleled in human history....

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  • Debt settlement companies required consumers to pay an up- front fee to join a debt assistance program that would eliminate the debt for a fraction of the amount owed. Many offered to refund the fee if the customer did not save a specified amount of money. Some groups claiming to be non- profit organizations offered debt counseling services targeting consumers with poor credit histories to help them obtain loans and credit cards or settle debts.

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  • A final way banks raise funds in the money market is through repurchase agreements (RPs). An RP is a sale of securities with a simultaneous agreement by the seller to repurchase them at a later date. (For the lender—that is, the buyer of the securities in such a transaction—the agreement is often called a reverse RP.) In effect this agreement (when properly executed) is a short-term collateralized loan. Most RPs involve U.S. government securities or securities issued by government-sponsored enterprises. Banks are active participants on the borrowing side of the RP market. ...

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  • This paper uses interest rate data that cover a longer period and that are based on more harmonised principles than those used by previous pass-through studies for the euro area. We find that stronger competition implies significantly lower interest rate spreads for most loan market products, as we expected.

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  • As the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision has pointed out, it has become increasingly important to look beyond the traditional earnings and economic value effects and assess indirect interest rate effects as well. Taking a broader view of the potential earnings impact of changing interest rates, banks also need to take into consideration the growing share of (interest-sensitive) fee- based fi nancial services (loan servicing, asset securitization programs, pay- ments etc.).

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  • However, the problem of personal ties and political factors influencing the loan decision does not mean that financial institutions necessarily need to be privately operated as has long been argued by the Bretton Woods institutions (i.e. World Bank 2001). Historical experience in a number of countries such as Chile (in the deregulation attempt of the 1980s) or in Indonesia (in the 1990s) show that a privatized banking sector does not necessarily allocate loans according to economic merit of the borrower.

    pdf40p enterroi 01-02-2013 34 3   Download

  • Moving to Rome, Italy, was a dream come true for me. My family roots are based in the north of Italy, but being anywhere in this beautiful country was an exciting prospect. My husband is a Foreign Service Officer and works at the embassy in Rome, where I first met the Global Employment Advisor, Loretta Dusini. I was excited to know that there was going to be someone who could help me find meaningful work, as I had lived abroad before (Moscow, Buenos Aires, and Prague) and being gainfully employed was not possible at that time since there...

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  • To study and clarify the basic theoretical issues and practices on appraisal of investment projects at Laos Bank for Foreign Trade. To assess current situation of appraisal of investment project with loans in Laos Bank for Foreign Trade in the past ew years and work out outstanding issues need being completed. Suggest system of major solutions to complete appraisal of loan investment project of Laos Bank for Foreign Trade by 2020.

    pdf0p luanan014 17-07-2014 26 2   Download

  • Only loans that meet the definition of a security are in the scope of ASC 320. Although certain loans can be readily converted into securities (e.g., loans insured by the Federal Housing Administration or conforming mortgage loans), a loan is not within the scope of ASC 320 until it has been securitized. The accounting by creditors for impairment of certain loans is addressed by ASC 310-10, and is applicable to all creditors and to all loans except (i) large groups of smaller-balance homogeneous loans that are collectively evaluated for impairment (i.e.

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  • The term of the loan refers to the time period over which you have the money. If it is an amortising loan, it is the time until the loan is paid off. For an amortising loan, the longer the term the lower the monthly payments (since you spread the repayment of the loan over a longer period). However, increasing the term of the loan also increases the total cost of a loan since you will be making payments for longer. Therefore, when taking out a loan, the consumer should focus on the total cost of the loan, as well as the monthly payments....

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  • Japan is well behind other countries in addressing this need for change. The United States and Canada abolished their postal savings systems over thirty years ago, New Zealand and a number of European countries have privatized theirs starting in the 1980s and most other European countries have taken at least some steps to privatize or streamline their postal banks in recent years.

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  • The goals of this chapter are: To describe international bank loan financing, to distinguish between eurobonds and foreign bonds, to describe international equity markets, to outline other means of international long-term financing.

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  • Trong bối cảnh kinh tế toàn cầu hiện nay, thu hút vốn đầu tư trực tiếp nước ngoài ( Foreign Direct Investment – FDI) đã trở thành xu thế khách quan trong chiến lược phát triển kinh tế của nhiều quốc gia và FDI được nhìn nhận như là một trong những nhân tố quan trọng để thúc đẩy nền kinh tế tăng trưởng hiệu quả.

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  • The prices established and offered in such transactions are generally disseminated and quoted throughout the United States and foreign countries and constitute a basis for determining and establishing the prices at which securities are bought and sold, the amount of certain taxes owing to the United States and to the several States by owners, buyers, and sellers of securities, and the value of collateral for bank loans.

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  • Banks dominate the financial system in Turkey and the asset size of the sector has increased by more than threefold in the last six years, exceeding USD 500 bn by the end of 2007. Banking and capital markets regulation and supervision have substantially improved. The capital adequacy ratio of the sector stood at 18.8% in 2007, well above the EU average, and non-performing loan (NPL) ratios have fallen. FDI into the banking system has surged since 2005 and the share of total capital of the banking sector held by foreign investors is now at more than 40%. The entry of...

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  • Interest rate risk remains high for banks because of a duration mis- match between deposits relative to banks’ holdings of government securities and certain housing loans. Exchange rate risk is less of a concern as banks have only a small net foreign exchange position and hedges are generally considered to be with strong institutions. In addition, large Turkish corporates have high foreign-exchange (FX) liabilities, often to foreign lenders, more willing to provide financing as markets stabilised after the crisis in 2001.

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  • Diamond and Rajan (2009) argue that securitisation also plays an important role in the transmission of interest rate shocks to the housing market. Securitisation allows banks to share risks by moving them off their balance sheets. This leads to an increase in banks' risk appetite and strengthens the `risk-taking channel' described above. To the extent that banks become more lenient in their lending standards, the 'nancial accelerator' effect may be strengthened as well.

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  • The United States and other industrialized countries have committed to financial assistance for environmental initiatives through several multilateral agreements (e.g., the Montreal Protocol (1987), the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992), United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (1994), and the Copenhagen Accord (2009)).

    pdf19p quaivatdo 18-11-2012 31 3   Download


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