Foreign subsidiaries

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  • Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) – investment by foreign companies in overseas subsidiaries or joint ventures – has a traditional reliance on natural resource use and extraction,particularly agriculture, mineral and fuel production. Though this balance has shifted in recent years, the poorest countries still receive a disproportionate amount of investment flows into their natural resource sectors.

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  • Các quốc gia thường đánh thuế vào pháp nhân (legal entity) có liên quan. Nếu một công ty đa quốc gia tạo lập một thực thể có tư cách pháp nhân độc lập ở nước ngoài, thực thể này gọi là foreign subsidiary. [The foreign subsidiary is a separate legal entity from the parent]. Nếu một công ty đa quốc gia kinh doanh trực tiếp ở nước ngoài không thông qua pháp nhân, thì các hoạt động đó gọi là branch. [A branch is part of the same entity as the parent]....

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  • 388 Planning and Forecasting EXHIBIT 12.23 Company AGCO Corporation (1999) Hedging of translation exposure: Selected company policies. Hedging Policy The Company’s translation exposure resulting from translating the financial statements of foreign subsidiaries into U.S. dollars is not hedged. When practical, this translation impact is reduced by financing local operations with local borrowings. We occasionally use foreign currency contracts to hedge the market risk of a subsidiary’s net asset position.

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  • Default rates among financial credit establishments are significantly higher than among banks. This result coincides with that obtained by Carey et al. (1998) for the US case, although the credit establishments considered here also include those that are subsidiaries of banking institutions. What seems clear is that certain types of finance (consumer durables in particular) and certain types of borrower (those without access to bank credit) are riskier.

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  • A key consideration in deciding whether to establish a policy preference for organizing cross-border banking groups as branches or subsidiaries is the balance between efficiency and financial stability. From the perspective of policymakers, different organizational structures have important stability implications, notwithstanding the “efficiency arguments” that may favor branches.

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  • Regulations of both home and host countries influence the choice of legal form of business model. Italian and Canadian banks, for example, are required to seek prior approval by their home regulator in order to open an overseas branch, and the Bank of Spain can refuse a bank’s application to open a branch on a wider set of criteria than in the case of subsidiaries (for EU-domiciled banks, these additional constraints do not apply for affiliate operations in EU member states given the EU single passport regime).

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  • In a stylized world, a range of bank structures exists with varying degrees of centralization of decision-making and restrictions on intra-group capital flows. At one end of the spectrum is a centralized model where the bank operates through a branch structure and capital and liquidity flow freely across business units and across borders, typically under the supervision of the authority where the entity is headquartered.

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  • Multinationals, as most people would know, recognize, admire, fear, and criticize, have been variously characterized for more than three decades. In the 1970s, an American, a British, or a European company that had subsidiaries in two or more countries was called a multinational corporation. In the 1980s, considering the history of foreign investment, a variety of nonmanufacturing companies—such as banks, insurance companies, and trading companies— also came to be recognized as multinational companies....

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  • A public company is a company that is not a private company. A public company may offer its shares to the general public and no limit is placed on the number of members. A private company that is a subsidiary of a company that is not a private company is also a public company. However, the status of a private subsidiary with more than one shareholder, where one is a foreign corporate body (holding company) and the other shareholder is not, depends on the status of its holding company. A “section 25” company is a company formed for the purpose...

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  • In addition to establishing a wholly owned subsidiary (or setting up a joint venture in India), a foreign company may establish its presence in India by setting up a liaison office, representative office, project or site office or branch. However, a branch of a foreign company attracts a higher rate of tax than a subsidiary or joint venture company. A l iaison off ice (also known as representative off ice) acts as a communication channel between the head office abroad and parties in India. It cannot carry on commercial activities in India and cannot earn income in India. The...

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  • This chapter distinguish among presentation (reporting) currency, functional currency, and local currency; describe foreign currency transaction exposure, including accounting for and disclosures about foreign currency transaction gains and losses; analyze how changes in exchange rates affect the translated sales of the subsidiary and parent company;…

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  • The RBI formulates implements and monitors the monetary policy. It is responsible for regulating non-banking financial services companies, which operate like banks but are otherwise not permitted to carry on the business of banking.

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  • A foreign company can commence operations in India by incorporating a company under the Companies Act as a subsidiary (including a wholly owned subsidiary) or as a joint venture company. Private or public companies are formed by first obtaining name availability approval, followed by registering the memorandum and articles of association and prescribed forms with the Registrar of Companies (ROC) in the state in which the registered office is to be located. If the documents are in order, the ROC will issue a certificate of incorporation.

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  • In other European countries such as Hungary and Latvia, this indirect cross-border credit was even more important in the run-up to the crisis. Much of this reflected the (interoffice) channelling of funds by foreign banks outside these countries to their subsidiaries in these countries (left-hand panels, dashed brown line), which in turn extended foreign currency loans to residents (right-hand panels).

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