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Fuel biomass

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  • Regression equations were developed to estimate shrub fuel biomass of a maquis formation in western Turkey. The relationships between some shrub characteristics and live, dead, available (for consumption), and total fuel biomass were determined by simple/multiple linear regression

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  • This could be fortuitous at modest scales because oxygen is relatively costly (Consonni and Larson 1994a). However, for the production of methanol from biomass, the use of air increases the volume of inert (N 2 ) gas that would have to be carried through all the downstream reactors. Therefore, the use of oxygen thus improves the economics of synthesis gas processing. Air-fired, directly heated gasifiers are considered not to be suitable before methanol production. This gasifier produces a CO 2 rich gas.

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  • Due to demands placed on natural resources globally and subsequent deterioration of the environment, there is a need to source and develop appropriate technology to satisfy this requirement. For decades mankind has largely depended on natural resources such as fossil fuels to meet the ever increasing energy demands. Realizing the finite nature of these resources, emphasis is now shifting to investigating alternate energy source governed by environmentally friendly principles.

    pdf210p kimngan_1 05-11-2012 55 14   Download

  • This two-volume book on biomass is a reflection of the increase in biomass related research and applications, driven by overall higher interest in sustainable energy and food sources, by increased awareness of potentials and pitfalls of using biomass for energy, by the concerns for food supply and by multitude of potential biomass uses as a source material in organic chemistry, bringing in the concept of bio-refinery. It reflects the trend in broadening of biomass related research and an increased focus on second-generation bio-fuels.

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  • This report provides a summary of some of the existing knowledge and literature related to the production of woody biomass from bioenergy with a particular focus on the economic perspective. The most commonly discussed woody biomass feedstocks are described along with results of existing economic modeling studies related to the provision of biomass from short rotation woody crops, harvest residues, and hazardous fuel reduction efforts. Additionally, the existing social science literature is used to highlight some challenges to widespread production of biomass energy.

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  • Various strategies for biomass derived bio-oil valorization as a renewable feedstock for chemicals and fuels are described. Starting from the role of renewable resources (e.g. biomass, bio-oil) in the future energy and chemical community, an overview on current energy supply situation and the role of biomass and related products are discussed. Later, summary of bio-oil production from biomass and the need for upgrading to further uses is represented.

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  • With the depletion of oil resources as well as the negative environmental impact of fossil fuels, there is much interest in alternative energy sources. Focusing on some of the most important alternate energy sources for the foreseeable future, the Handbook of Plant-Based Biofuels provides state-of-the-art information on the status of the production of biofuels, in particular, bioethanol and biodiesel. After profiling plant-based biofuels, the book gives an overview of the production of biofuels from biomass materials by thermochemical and biochemical methods.

    pdf292p ktct_1669 03-05-2012 114 53   Download

  • Biomass has been a close companion of man since the dawn of civilization to present. The use of it as food, energy resources, including the body and building materials set the key areas of the expanded use of biomass to this day. With the appearance agricultural land productivity increased significantly, especially for farming new plant varieties, with the emergence of intensive soil fertility. in that context, the emergence and use of fossil fuels for energy and chemical materials industry but is a film about the horizon of human history....

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  • The fossil fuels that are principally used to provide energy today are in limited quantity, they are diminishing at an alarming rate, and their worldwide supplies will eventually be exhausted. Fossil fuels provide approximately 60 percent of the world’s global electric power. Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere will continue to rise unless other cleaner sources of energy are explored. Biomass has the potential to become one of the major global primary energy source in the years to come.

    pdf456p ktcn_1 10-07-2012 108 16   Download

  • This work addresses a policy initiative by the Federal Administration to apply United States Department of Energy (DOE) research to broadening the country’s domestic production of economic, flexible, and secure sources of energy fuels. President Bush stated in his 2006 State of the Union Address: “America is addicted to oil.” [1] To reduce the Nation’s future demand for oil, the President has proposed the Advanced Energy Initiative [2] which outlines significant new investments and policies to change the way we fuel our vehicles and change the way we power our homes and businesses.

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  • Although there were many books and papers that deal with gasification, there has been only a few practical book explaining the technology in actual application and the market situation in reality. Gasification is a key technology in converting coal, biomass, and wastes to useful high-value products. Until renewable energy can provide affordable energy hopefully by the year 2030, gasification can bridge the transition period by providing the clean liquid fuels, gas, and chemicals from the low grade feedstock....

    pdf350p kimngan_1 05-11-2012 70 13   Download

  • This volume grew out of two conferences held in 2007 to address the opportunities and challenges of transition to a bio-economy. The first, an international sympo- sium on “Fueling Change with Renewable Energy,” was held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in April 2007, while the second, “Intersection of Energy and Agriculture: Implications of Biofuels and the Search for a Fuel of the Future,” was held at the University of California at Berkeley in October 2007.

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  • The following sections provide an overview of the technical and qualitative characteristics of a wide range of alternative fuels that can replace coal in cement kilns. These fuels include agricultural and non-agricultural biomass, chemical and hazardous wastes, petroleum-based wastes, and miscellaneous waste fuels. Each of these alternatives are described in detail, including a discussion of average substitution rates, energy and water content of the fuels, carbon dioxide emissions factors, and change in carbon emissions per ton1 of coal replacement.

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  • The stock synthesis model (Methot 1989, 1990) was developed to provide a bridge between biomass-based assessment methods and full age-structured methods (Deriso et al. 1985; Fournier and Archibald 1982). Subsequently, synthesis evolved to a flexible tool (Methot 1990) and was used for many west coast and Alaska groundf ish stock assessments during 1988-2000. Synthesis consists of a forward population projection model that simulates the dynamics of a stock within a statistical estimation framework.

    pdf128p bocapchetnguoi 05-12-2012 32 3   Download

  • Due to demands placed on natural resources globally and subsequent deterioration of the environment, there is a need to source and develop appropriate technology to satisfy this requirement. For decades mankind has largely depended on natural resources such fossil fuels to meet the ever increasing energy demands. Realising the fi nite nature of these resources, emphasis is now shifting to investigating alternate energy source governed by environmentally friendly principles.

    pdf0p 123859674 04-07-2012 38 2   Download

  • Dairy and meat production are very complex in dry regions due to shortages and the low quality of fodder, especially in dry months. Livestock scientists are enthusiastic to explore and investigate good quality fodder that can boost milk and meat production in an economical way.

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  • Năng lượng thay thế ( Alternative energy ) là năng lượng thu được từ những nguồn ngoài 3 dạng Nhiên liệu hóa thạch ( Fossil Fuel ): Than đá ( coal ), Dầu mỏ ( oil ) và Khí tự nhiên ( Natural gas ). Những nguồn năng lượng thay thế này bao gồm: Năng lượng hạt nhân ( Nuclear power ), Năng lượng mặt trời ( Solar power ), Năng lượng gió ( Wind power ),Năng lượng địa nhiệt ( Geothermal energy ), Năng lượng sinh khối ( Biomass energy ), Năng lượng nước ( Hydropower ) và một...

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  • Overall structure of electrical power system is in the process of changing. For incremental growth, it is moving away from fossil fuels - major source of energy in the world today - to renewable energy resources that are more environmentally friendly and sustainable [1].

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  • Introduction: Today, the energy supply is primarily based on the combustion of fossil fuels. Electricity generation is the main driver for carbon dioxide emissions in stationary applications, whereas vehicles powered by internal combustion engines are a major source of distributed carbon dioxide emissions. The generation of electricity from renewable energy sources such as solar power, wind power, tidal power, or the use of biomass is reducing the burden from carbon dioxide emissions.

    pdf17p congdat261 06-12-2010 123 22   Download

  • Diesel engines, also known as CI engines, possess a wide field of applications as energy converters because of their higher efficiency. However, diesel engines are a major source of NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Because of its importance, five chapters in this book have been devoted to the formulation and control of these pollutants. The world is currently experiencing an oil crisis. Gaseous fuels like natural gas, pure hydrogen gas, biomass-based and coke-based syngas can be considered as alternative fuels for diesel engines.

    pdf278p bunmang_1 03-05-2013 97 16   Download

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