Funding the public sector

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  • (bq) part 1 book "economics today - the macro view" has contents: the nature of economics, scarcity and the world of trade offs, demand and supply, extensions of demand and supply analysis, public spending and public choice, funding the public sector,...and other contents.

    pdf239p bautroibinhyen27 11-05-2017 33 2   Download

  • (bq) part 1 book "economics today" has contents: the nature of economics, demand and supply, extensions of demand and supply analysis, public spending and public choice, funding the public sector, demand and supply elasticity, consumer choice,...and other contents.

    pdf237p bautroibinhyen30 15-06-2017 12 1   Download

  • The purpose of this paper is to study the phenomenon of lapsed funding that occurs within the public sector using the framework of the Newsvendor Problem. Under this framework, we observe that lapsed funding is a natural outcome of the planning system when the financial manager is trying to maximize the value added to his unit. Centralizing control of operating budgets of homogeneous units is shown to reduce lapsed funds and improve their overall performance.

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  • Project objectives should therefore contribute to national and sector policies wherever a public sector activity is being supported. When non-state actors are implementing projects, a distinction needs to be made drawn between activities fully outside the realm of the public sector and activities undertaken on behalf of government. In the latter case, non-state actors typically deliver services of a public nature as if these services had been ‘contracted out’ by government.

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  • It is in compliance with the earnest requests of colleagues and friends that I have embarked on the task of editing a handbook of governmental accounting. Practitioners in the private sector, public administrators, and students in colleges and universities will find this handbook a useful reference. We hope our readers from a diverse range of fields will use it to gain understanding and familiarity with government accounting concepts.

    pdf0p hyperion75 15-01-2013 60 12   Download

  • One of the lessons that the Bank has learned from the experience of so- cial funds is that involving poor citizens in the choices, design, and imple- mentation of projects responsive to their immediate needs may unearth new but modest sources of domestic savings for capital formation. These savings, effected mainly through the labor of the poor and the mobiliza- tion of parts of their unspent incomes, frees up public resources for other uses. This can potentially reduce the claims of the public sector on the national economy.

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  • Leveraging refers to the process by which private sector capital is mobilised as a consequence of the use of public sector finance and financial instruments. Public finance can „crowd in‟ private capital by compensating private investors for what would otherwise be lower than their required risk-adjusted rates of return (AGF, 2010). There is no uniform methodology to calculate leverage ratios of public to private finance, and different financial institutions report this ratio in different ways.

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  • The second future path for social funds is as special-purpose vehicles, providing selective seed capital to foster innovations in community de- velopment, to experiment with new technologies, and to act as the government’s agent in remote areas and for very small-scale activities. Even though many of the social funds might already characterize them- selves as special-purpose vehicles, they have gotten much broader.

    pdf6p thangbienthai 23-11-2012 47 5   Download

  • Social funds should not replace the public sector in tasks that are the government’s inherent responsibility. To do so can undermine ongoing public sector reform and institution-building programs. The objective of funds should be to reinforce and broaden, rather than supplant, the role of state institutions in the social field. Undoubtedly, in many countries, fund portfolios are going to continue to have schools and health posts and other such social projects because funds have been shown to be effective in that role.

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  • For bonds, debentures, asset-backed securities and other debt securities, the fair value represents the bid price provided by independent security pricing services. Short-term investments are included in the Statement of Investment Portfolio at their fair value. Unlisted warrants are valued based on a pricing model which considers factors such as the market value of the underlying security, strike price and terms of the warrant.

    pdf8p hongphuocidol 04-04-2013 34 5   Download

  • Recognising that significant levels of investment are required to make the transition to a low carbon economy, the Capital Markets Climate Initiative (CMCI) was launched by the UK Minister of State for Climate Change, Gregory Barker, to help accelerate the response to this financing challenge by supporting the scale up of private finance flows to developing countries. The CMCI will be working with policymakers in developing countries to understand why and how public sector action can help mobilise private capital and encourage new markets in low carbon investments.

    pdf11p quaivatdo 18-11-2012 41 4   Download

  • The Capital Market Climate Initiative (CMCI) is a UK initiative, bringing together experts from the financial and public sector to help deliver private climate financing at scale in developing countries by: identifying deliverable propositions to mobile private capital; developing a base of evidence build developing country interest and support; and building private sector confidence in the feasibility of the task and opportunities.

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  • We estimate that there are approximately $11 billion of public-sector pension fund commitments (across all asset classes) in urban revitalization, emerging domestic markets, or, more broadly, economic development, through either formal targeted investment policies or one off investments as of 007.  We also find that momentum for this type of investment seems to be picking up.

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  • Some critics also view these investments as running counter to the fund’s fiduciary duty. While public-sector pension funds are exempt from ERISA (1974 federal law over private pension funds) and are governed by varied state laws, ERISA standards and its treatment of economically targeted investments (ETIs) are cited as a transferable legal framework. The Department of Labor issued an interpretative bulletin (1994) stating that private pension funds may pursue ETIs as long as they meet standard prudent investment guidelines and seek appropriate risk/return characteristics (U.S.

    pdf10p quaivatdo 18-11-2012 30 3   Download

  • A bad bank plan can be implemented in a centralized or decentralized manner. Under a decentralized plan, each troubled bank is split into its own good and bad bank. Under a centralized plan, all distressed assets in the banking sector are deposited in a single bad bank. If one bad bank were established for each of the three main pillars of the German banking industry – i.e. for the credit unions, savings banks and private banks – this would also qualify as a centralized bad bank plan. Mixed solutions that combine private and public sector funding as well as centralized...

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  • Associated General Contractors of America (AGC), the leading national construction trade association representing both the public and private sectors, for each dollar spent on new construction, a total of $11 in economic activity is generated across all industries and other services. Since December 2003, the cumulative increase in the prices of inputs used in construction (45%) has been more than double the increase in the consumer price index (19%), as shown in Figure 1.1.

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  • CED does offer the potential to help young women make a transition to better-paying positions in sectors such as the public service. As we shall see, CED can meet both the short-term needs young women have to earn income, and the long term needs of gaining marketable skills they will take with them into their futures. Caroline Moserís conceptualizations of practical and strategic gender needs have been pivotal in development theory. She explains that any efforts towards gender equality require us to think in terms of womenís practical and strategic gender needs.

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  • The Milbank Memorial Fund is an endowed operating foundation that works to improve health by helping decision makers in the public and private sectors acquire and use the best available evidence to inform pol- icy for health care and population health. The Fund has engaged in non- partisan analysis, research, and communication about significant issues in health policy since its inception in 1905.

    pdf801p lyly_5 22-03-2013 40 3   Download

  • Each of the language markets has its own public service broadcaster. In the Flemish sector, total VRT revenues in 2008 were $560.9 million (€457.9 million), of which 74 percent comes from a government grant. The remaining $145.8 million (26 percent) is secured through advertising. In the French-speaking sector, RTBF’s total revenues for 2008 amounted to $474 million, with $390 million (82 percent) coming from government grants and the remaining $84 million (18 percent) from advertising and sponsorships.

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  • The Overseas Development Institute has also looked at such risk mitigation mechanisms. 23 In addition to the above, they highlight the use of pledge funds, whereby by public finance sponsors provide a small amount of equity to encourage larger pledges from private investors 24 .

    pdf42p quaivatdo 19-11-2012 32 1   Download



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