Genomic organization

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  • Minireview Maize DNA-sequencing strategies and genome organization Ron J Okagaki and Ronald L Phillips Address: Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, and Center for Plant and Microbial Genomics, The University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA. Correspondence: Ron J Okagaki. E-mail: comment reviews Published: 16 April 2004 Genome Biology 2004, 5:223 The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at http://genomebiology.

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  • The biological sciences have become more quantitative and information-driven since emerging computational and mathematical tools facilitate collection and analysis of vast amounts of biological data. Complexity analysis of biological systems provides biological knowledge for the organization, management, and mining of biological data by using advanced computational tools. The biological data are inherently complex, nonuniform, and collected at multiple temporal and spatial scales.

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  • Over the past several years, scientists from the United States and around the world have been using a technique called DNA sequencing to unlock the genetic code of many different organisms. With code in hand, scientists can design sophisticated experiments that will inform our understanding of how an organism develops and functions. To date, they have carried out partial or complete DNA sequencing on human, mouse, rat, bacterial, and plant genomes. A major finding that was confirmed from these efforts is that most biologic functions are genetically conserved within and between species....

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  • Impurities in the purge gas, organic compounds outgassing from the plumbing ahead of the trap, and solvent vapors in the laboratory account for the majority of contamination problems. The analytical system must be demonstrated to be free from contamination under the conditions of the analysis by running laboratory reagent blanks as described in Section 8.1.3. The use of non-Teflon plastic tubing, non-Teflon thread sealants, or flow controllers with rubber components in the purge and trap system should be avoided....

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  • The availability of the complete chicken genome sequence provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the global genome organization at the sequence level. Delineating compositionally homogeneous G + C domains in DNA sequences can provide much insight into the understanding of the organization and biological functions of the chicken genome.

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  • Chapter 10 introduce to the genomes and proteomes. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Large-scale genome mapping and analysis, major insights from the human and model organism genome sequences, global analysis of genes and their mRNAs, global analysis of proteomes, repercussions of the human genome project and high-throughput technology.

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  • Some organic pest management strategies include using crop rotations that disrupt the pest life cycle, improving soil quality, practicing good sanitation, using optimum planting densities, timing planting and transplanting operations to avoid high pest populations, employing biological control, and growing resistant varieties. Approved pesticides that have been listed in the grower’s OSP can be used in organic production, but should be used as judiciously and as specific to the pest organism as possible.

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  • The human MUC4 gene encodes a large membrane-associated mucin, characterized by a mucin tandem repeat domain and a growth factor-like transmembrane domain. In addition to the originally published sequence (sv0-MUC4), several MUC4 cDNA sequences (called sv1-MUC4 to sv21MUC4, MUC4/X, MUC4/Y) from various tissues and cell lines have been recently described. They differ from sv0MUC4 by deletions and/or insertions located in the 3¢ region or, for two of them, by deletion of the central repetitive domain.

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  • Chapter 14 - Prokaryotic and organelle genetics. This chapter begins with a discussion of the origins of yeast mitochondrial work. It then discusses the development of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism. It also shows how early work on the organelle genetics of Chlamydomonas and yeast were carried out relatively independently; but inevitably the rationales soon paralleled one another.

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  • Chapter 18 - Using genetics to study development. In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: Model organisms: prototypes for developmental genetics, using mutations to dissect development, analysis of developmental pathways, a comprehensive example: body-plan development in Drosophila, how genes help control development.

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  • Chapter 20 describes evolution at the molecular level. In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: The origin of life on earth, the evolution of genomes, the organization of genomes, a comprehensive example: rapid evolution in the immune response and in HIV.

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  • This chapter explain how linkage mapping, physical mapping, and DNA sequencing each contributed to the Human Genome Project, define the fields of proteomics and genomics, describe the surprising findings of the Human Genome Project with respect to the size of the human genome, distinguish between transposons and retrotransposons.

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  • This meeting, organized by Richard Flavell (Ceres, Malibu, USA) and Rob Martienssen (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, USA), brought together a diverse group of speakers for a discussion of plant genome organization and the types of variation that exist between and within species. This report focuses on the consequences of this variation on phenotype, and the basis of this variation at the DNA and epigenetic

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  • Uncovering Recurrent Submicroscopic Rearrangements As a Cause of Disease For five decades since Fred Sanger's (1) seminal discovery that proteins have a specific structure, since Linus Pauling's (2) discovery that hemoglobin from patients with sickle cell anemia is molecularly distinct, and since Watson and Crick's (3) elucidation of the chemical basis of heredity, the molecular basis of disease has been addressed in the context of how mutations affect the structure, function, or regulation of a gene or its protein product.

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  • Learning objectives of this chapter include: Define genome; discuss the breath of genomics; distinguish between genetic maps and physical maps; describe the different techniques used for sequencing a genome; discuss the pros and cons of using clone-by-clone sequencing versus shotgun sequencing;...

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  • The genomics revolution of the past decade has greatly enhanced our understanding of the genetic composition of living organisms including many plant species of economic importance. Complete genomic sequences of Arabidopsis and several major crops, together with high-throughput technologies for analyses of transcripts, proteins and mutants, provide the basis for understanding the relationship between genes, proteins and phenotypes.

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  • The term DNA sequencing refers to methods for determining the order of the nucleotides bases adenine,guanine,cytosine and thymine in a molecule of DNA. The first DNA sequence were obtained by academic researchers,using laboratories methods based on 2- dimensional chromatography in the early 1970s. By the development of dye based sequencing method with automated analysis,DNA sequencing has become easier and faster.

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  • We conducted our audit of compliance in accordance with U.S. generally accepted auditing standards; the standards applicable to financial audits contained in Government Auditing Standards, issued by the Comptroller General of the United States; and OMB Circular A-133, Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations.

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  • Pesticides are divided to insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, acaricides and nematocides according to the organisms that they affect. There are various forms of insecticides; most are repellants or insect growth regulators used in agriculture, public health, horticulture or food storage. It is evident that insecticides have been used to boost food production to a considerable extent and to control disease vectors.

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  • Increasing attention has also been given to dissecting and understanding diversity in relation to genes underlying important agronomic traits in a number of crops. Molecular phylogenetics and genetic diversity analysis can help to clarify the taxonomic identity and evolutionary relationships of the wild relatives of crop species. These methods can also help prevent misidentification and carefully plan effective germplasm management strategies.

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