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Geographical indicator

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  • Geographical Indications (GIs) was conceptualized in the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in 1995 (TRIPs Agreement) and become one of the most contentious intellectual property rights issues in the World Trade Organization (WTO) and multiple treaties. The establishment of a multilateral system for the notification and the registration of Geographical Indications has been widely debated across the world in the last decades.

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  • A geographical indication (GI) is a sign used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin (WIPO).Geographical Indication, an exclusive community rights, recognizes the importance of location, climate and human know how in making the products distinguished on the basis of their unique intrinsic attributes. It acts as an effective tool in protecting and rewarding the market potential of elite items and also the traditional knowledge associated with them (Kishore,2018).

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  • This publication provides an introduction to geographical indications (GIs), explaining their basic features, use and protection as an intellectual property right. Written for non-experts, it is a starting point for readers seeking to learn more about the topic.

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  • Nowadays, people looking towards the agriculture as industrial point of view or as business, which cannot sustain without research and development and astute investments. In the past three decades, the role of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in agribusiness has increased enormously. Apart from investment in agricultural research, intellectual property rights (IPRs) have profound impact on technology development, and its transfer. There has been an increasing interest in the innovations of pre-harvest as well as post-harvest agriculture machinery.

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  • The present investigation was carried out among the 42 germplasm of chickpea, to study the nature and magnitude of genetic divergence using Mahalanobis’s D 2 Statistics, during rabi season of 2017 at Naini Agricultural Institute, S.H.U.A.T.S., Allahabad, U.P. Based on D² analysis, the 42 germplasm lines were grouped into seven different clusters indicating diverse nature of material studied.

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  • This is the highly sort after secret final agreed version of the TPP, chapter on Intellectual Property Rights. There is still a finishing 'legal scrub' of the document meant to occur, but there are to be no more negotiations between the Parties. The TPP Parties are the United States, Mexico, Canada, Australia, Malaysia, Chile, Singapore, Peru, Vietnam, New Zealand and Brunei Darussalam.

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  • Previously a senior forest campaigner and investigator with the Environmental Investigation Agency, an international NGO, he has been researching and investigating illegal logging and associated trade for more than ten years. He is the author of a number of influential reports on illegal logging and timber smuggling, has been actively engaged with many international initiatives to tackle the problem, and has provided relevant training to enforcement agents and NGOs in producer countries. He has led the development of Chatham House’s work on illegal logging indicators since 2006....

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  • Prenatal diagnosis, traditionally used as a synonymous for invasive fetal testing and evaluation of chromosomal constellation, presently encompasses many other issues like pedigree analyses, fetal risk assessment, population screening, genetic counseling and fetal diagnostic testing as well. Ultrasound guided chorionic villus samling (CVS), amniocentesis and, to a lesser extent, fetal blood sampling are used routinely in fetal medicine units. Other fetal tissue biopsies such as skin, liver and muscle biopsy are used only rarely.

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  • Indian legislation covers patents, copyrights, trademarks, geographical indicators and industrial designs. The Patent Act 1970 has been amended several times to meet India’s commitments to the WTO, such as increasing the term of a patent to 20 years. Trademarks can be registered under the Trade Marks Act, 1999, which provides for registration of trademark for services in addition to goods, simplifies procedures, increases the registration period to 10 years and provides a six-month grace period for the payment of renewal fees.

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  • India is a signatory to the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property and the Patent Co-operation Treaty, and it extends reciprocal property arrangements to all countries party to the convention. The convention makes India eligible for the Trademark Law Treaty and the Madrid Agreement on Trademarks. The country also participates in the Bern Convention on Copyrights, the Washington Treaty on Layout of Integrated Circuits, the Budapest Treaty on Deposit of Micro-organisms and the Lisbon Treaty on Geographical Indicators.

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  • Elizabeth Adeney is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Law at Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia. She holds the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Melbourne (Arts) and from Monash University (Law) and is admitted to practise in the Supreme Court of Victoria. She has published widely on moral rights – in Australia, Germany, the UK and Canada – and is the author of a treatise on the subject: The Moral Rights of Authors and Performers: an international and comparative analysis, published by Oxford University Press....

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  • The lesson of successful countries which has been repeatedly asserted is that, in the modern times, a country needs neither to be rich in resources nor to have a history of capitalism so as to succeed in industrialisation after some decades – it will achieve that if it can avoid institutional failures. Lessons of successes could be difficult to apply, but those of failures can, in principle, be avoided. To be successful, first and foremost, latecomer countries need to learn the lessons of failures.

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  • Active renewal policies that required families to submit documentation to verify their continued eligibility were associated with substantial disenrollment. Requiring active eligibility redetermination every 6 months rather than every 12 months resulted in even higher levels of disenrollment over time. Up to one- quarter of children who disenrolled at renewal returned to SCHIP within 3 months (18 percent to 27 percent).

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  • The adult literacy rate in 2004 was 49.6% with 55.5% for males and 43.4% for females (BBS 2004). Although the female/male ratio in primary school was 100:115, in secondary schools and universities this gap increased to 100:131 and 100:322 respectively (Ministry of Education 2002). In addition to gender inequalities, inequalities also exist by geographical areas. Only 36% of the rural women are literate, compared to 60% of urban women. However, this situation is rapidly changing in recent years.

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  • Soil tensile strength (TS) and aggregate stability (AS) values can be used as indicators of soil structural quality. The objective of this study was to determine the influences of land use types, soil carbon and clay contents on soil structure.

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  • DNA-based markers have the potential to improve the efficiency and precision of breeding programs based on markerassisted selection. In the present study we evaluated the predictive abilities of previously reported PCR-based simple sequence repeat and functional markers related to fragrance in a set of 24 rice genotypes, including traditional basmatis, evolved basmatis, and aromatic indigenous landraces.

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  • Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae), native to arid and semiarid rangeland, has been widely studied biochemically, pharmaceutically, and medicinally, but is largely unknown ecologically. In the lower Chelif, Algeria, this plant is largely present and shows a clear clumped pattern, which indicates the strong effects of environmental conditions

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  • Tourism sector in Sri Lanka is the third largest foreign exchange earner to the country which recorded nearly 1.5 mil. tourist arrivals in 2014, whereas Asia appeared as the main tourism source followed by Western Europe. Employment generation both direct and indirect through the tourism sector is quite significant, where it directly provide nearly 130,000 employment opportunities every year.

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  • Bacterial bloodstream infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality globally. The aim of present study was to determine the bacterial profile of bloodstream infections and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern among the clinically diagnosed cases of sepsis in cancer patients. In the present study, etiological and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of blood cultures over a period of 1 year at a tertiary cancer care hospital was done. Blood culture positive isolates were identified using standard microbiological methods and by Manual method.

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  • An experiment was undertaken by utilizing forty five Niger genotypes for twelve yield and yield contributing characters to assess genetic divergence. The analysis of variance has shown that there was significant variation among the genotypes in all the traits. The multivariate analysis carried out using MahalanobisD2 -statistics, indicated wider genetic diversity in the genotypes of niger.

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