Glucose metabolism

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  • The progression from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to type 2 diabetes involves intermediate stages of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), also known as prediabetes. The pathophysiology underlying the development of these glucose metabolic alterations is multifactorial, leading to an alteration in the balance between insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Our knowledge of the molecular basis of the signaling pathways mediating the various physiologic effects of insulin is steadily advancing....

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Influence of insulin on glucose metabolism and energy expenditure in septic patients...

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  • In this research, the growth and metabolic activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in alginate gel during alcoholic fermentation with different initial glucose concentration were studied. Starting from initial glucose concentration at 140 g/L, we observed that increasing this concentration to 220 g/L had little effect on the growth of immobilized yeast. Under the same conditions, the maximum biomass, glucose uptake rate, and final ethanol concentration obtained in the immobilized yeast cultures were always higher than those in the free yeast cultures....

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  • The food we eat has a major effect on our physical health and psychological wellbeing. An understanding of the way in which nutrients are metabolized, and hence of the principles of biochemistry, is essential for an understanding of the scientific basis of what we would call a prudent or healthy diet. My aim in the following pages is to explain both the conclusions of the many expert committees that have deliberated on the problems of nutritional requirements, diet and health over the years and also the scientific basis on which these experts have reached their conclusions.

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  • The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) peel extracts (CGE) on activity of lipid-carbohydrate metabolic enzymes such as Carnitine pamitoyl-transferase (CPT), lipase, hexokinase, glucose 6-phosphatase and blood lipid glucose parameters in experimental obese and diabetic mice. The results showed that, in the experimental obese mice treated daily, orally with CGE at dose of 1200 mg/body weight for three weeks,

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  • Estrogen is known to influence glucose homeostasis but the role of estrogen receptors in muscle glucose metabolism is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the expression of the two estrogen receptors, ERa and ERb and their influence on regulation of GLUT4, and its associated structural protein, caveolin-1, in mouse muscle. ERaand ERbare co-expressed in the nuclei of most muscle cells and their levels were not affected by absence of estradiol (in aromatase knockout, ArKO, mice).

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  • Chapter 22 "Metabolic Pathways for Carbohydrates" Metabolism and Cell Structure, ATP and Energy, Digestion of Carbohydrates, Glycolysis Oxidation of Glucose, Utilization of Glucose

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  • Many tumor types exhibit an impaired Pasteur effect, i.e. despite the pres-ence of oxygen, glucose is consumed at an extraordinarily high rate com-pared with the tissue from which they originate – the so-called ‘Warburg effect’.

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  • Huntington’s disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by multifarious dysfunctional alterations including mitochon-drial impairment. In the present study, the formation of inclusions caused by the mutation of huntingtin protein and its relationship with changes in energy metabolism and with pathological alterations were investigated both in transgenic and 3-nitropropionic acid-treated mouse models for HD.

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  • Pharmacological activation or overexpression of glucokinase in hepatocytes stimulates glucose phosphorylation, glycolysis and glycogen synthesis. We used an inhibitor of glucose 6-phosphate (Glc6P) hydrolysis, namely the chlorogenic derivative, 1-[2-(4-chloro-phenyl)-cyclopropylmethoxy]-3, 4-di-hydroxy-5-(3-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-1-yl-3-phenyl-acryloyloxy)-cyclohexane-

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  • Propionate is used to protect bread and animal feed from moulds. The mode of action of this short-chain fatty acid was studied usingAspergillus nidulansas a model organism. The filamentous fungus is able to grow slowly on propio-nate, which is oxidized to acetyl-CoA via propionyl-CoA, methylcitrate and pyruvate. Propionate inhibits growth of A. nidulanson glucose but not on acetate; the latter was shown to inhibit propionate oxidation.

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  • Cell biology of carbohydrate metabolism: Regulation of metabolic pathways, glucose as a regulator of metabolism, a carbohydrate response element (ChoRE) consists of 2 E-box like elements separated by 5 nucleotides, metabolic control analysis,...

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  • Since the publication of the first edition sixteen years ago, Inborn Metabolic Diseases – Diagnosis and Treatment has become a classic textbook, indispensable for those involved in the care of children and adults with inborn errors of metabolism, including pediatricians, biochemists, dieticians, neurologists, internists, geneticists, psychologists, nurses, and social workers. This new 4th edition has been extensively revised.

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  • In muscle  forms as cytosolic granules with a diameter of 10 to 40 nm - the same as the size of ribosome. Concentration (liver cells) concentration (muscle cells) Total amount of glycogen in muscle cells in the liver. In the uterus, glycogen is stored during pregnancy to nourish the embryo. In vagina, glycogen is secreted and then converted into lactic acid to maintain the acidic environment in order to protect vagina from outside bacteria infections. In kidneys, brain and white blood cells....

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  • Hình 6.1. Đề án chuyển hóa glycogen và glycolysis. PGK, phosphoglycerate kinase; P, phosphate; PLD, phosphorylase hạn dextrin; UDPG, uridine diphosphate glucose. Các chữ số La Mã cho biết các enzyme có thiếu sót gây ra gan (in nghiêng)

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  • Pyruvate được hình thành từ glucose và các monosacarit khác, từ lactate, và từ alanine amino axit gluconeogenic (Hình 12.1.). Sau khi nhập vào ty thể, pyruvate có thể được chuyển đổi thành acetylcoenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) pyruvate dehydrogenase phức tạp, theo sau bởi quá trình oxy hóa hơn nữa trong các TCA

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  • Mood disorders are a crucial group of mental disorders that last for a life time, cause psychosocial dysfunction, disrupts interpersonal relationships and are overall highly restrictive. The facts that mood disorders are seen as high as 3-5% of the society and 70% of the patients' first psychiatric application puts forward that they are not well known show that these are a serious type of mental illness. The average time to make the right diagnose is reported as 10 years.

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  • Prolonged exposure of pancreatic beta cells to the sulfonylureas glibenca-mide and tolbutamide induces subsequent desensitization to the actions of these drugs. The precise mechanisms underlying this desensitization remain unknown, prompting the present study, which investigated the impact of prolonged sulfonylurea exposure on glucose and energy metabolism using clonal pancreatic BRIN-BD11 beta cells.

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  • The energy-metabolism oscillation in aerobic chemostat cultures of yeast is a periodic change of the respiro-fermentative and respiratory phase. In the respiro-fermentative phase, the NADH level was kept high and respiration was suppressed, and glucose was anabolized into trehalose and glycogen at a rate comparable to that of catabolism.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Differential influence of arterial blood glucose on cerebral metabolism following severe traumatic brain injury...

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