# Greek mathematics

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• ### Mathematics The History of Mathematics: An Introduction

Sincemany excellent treatises on the history ofmathemat- ics are available, there may seem little reason for writing still another. But most current works are severely techni- cal, written by mathematicians for other mathematicians or for historians of science. Despite the admirable schol- arship and often clear presentation of these works, they are not especially well adapted to the undergraduate classroom. (Perhaps the most notable exception is Howard Eves’s popular account, An Introduction to the History of Mathematics.

• ### Stochastic Calculus of Variations in Mathematical Finance

Stochastic Calculus of Variations (or Malliavin Calculus) consists, in brief, in constructing and exploiting natural differentiable structures on abstract probability spaces; in other words, Stochastic Calculus of Variations proceeds from a merging of differential calculus and probability theory. As optimization under a random environment is at the heart of mathematical finance, and as differential calculus is of paramount importance for the search of extrema, it is not surprising that Stochastic Calculus of Variations appears in mathematical finance.

• ### Hyperbolic Functions, by James McMahon

Through the use of abstraction and logical reasoning, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity for as far back as written records exist. Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements.

• ### The Theory of Numbers, by Robert D. Carmichael

The word mathematics comes from the Greek μάθημα (máthēma), which, in the ancient Greek language, means "what one learns", "what one gets to know", hence also "study" and "science", and in modern Greek just "lesson". The word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω (manthano), while the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω (mathaino), both of which mean "to learn". In Greece, the word for "mathematics" came to have the narrower and more technical meaning "mathematical study", even in Classical times.

• ### THE MATHEMATICS OF THE IDEAL VILLA

Many Roman villas had under-floor heating which would have been especially useful in the British winter! The Roman name, hypocaust, is Ancient Greek meaning ‘fire beneath’. The floor was supported on short columns made of stacked tiles. A fire would be kept burning (very hard work for the slaves!) in the furnace room, and the hot air would move through the under-floor area, heating the rooms above. The hot air and smoke escaped through channels in the walls. To make your hypocaust system, you will need to raise up your whole villa by around 6cm.

• ### Research report: "Several have commented on the tight space count."

Specifically, the science of physics to the laws of natural movement, from a macroscopic (particles that make up matter) to larger scales (planets, galaxies and the universe). In English, from physics (physics) is derived from Greek φύσις (phusis) means natural and φυσικός (phusikos) is of the nature. The main object of study now include physical matter, energy, space and time.

• ### An Elementary Treatise on Fourier’s Series and Spherical

The apparent plural form in English, like the French plural form les mathématiques (and the less commonly used singular derivative la mathématique), goes back to the Latin neuter plural mathematica (Cicero), based on the Greek plural τα μαθηματικά (ta mathēmatiká), used by Aristotle (384–322 BC), and meaning roughly "all things mathematical"; although it is plausible that English borrowed only the adjective mathematic(al) and formed the noun mathematics anew, after the pattern of physics and metaphysics, which were inherited from the Greek.

• ### Economics

Economics is the social science that analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The term economics comes from the Ancient Greek οἰκονομία (oikonomia, "management of a household, administration") from οἶκος (oikos, "house") + νόμος (nomos, "custom" or "law"), hence "rules of the house(hold)".

• ### NEW TRIBOLOGICAL WAYS

The tribology term comes from the Greeks of the words ‘’ tribos’’ meaning ‘’ friction ‘’, and ‘’logos’’ meaning ‘’ law ‘’. Therefore Tribology is defi ned as “ a science which studies surfaces moving one compared to the other “ and also a fi eld of science studying lubrication, friction, and wear.